Doping of perovskite semiconductor1 and passivation of its grain boundaries2 remain challenging but essential for advancing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. Particularly, that’s crucial to build the perovskite/indium tin oxide (ITO) Schottky contact based inverted devices without pre-depositing a layer of hole-transport material3-5. Here we report a dimethylacridine-based molecular doping process to construct a well matched p-perovskite/ITO contact along with all-round passivation of grain boundaries, achieving a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.39%. The molecules are shown to be extruded from the precursor solution to the grain boundaries and the film bottom surface in the chlorobenzene-quenched crystallization process, which we call a molecule-extrusion process. The core coordination complex between the deprotonated phosphonic acid group of the molecule and lead polyiodide of perovskite is responsible for both mechanical absorption and electronic charge transfer, and leads to p-type doping of the perovskite film. We achieve a champion device with a PCE of 25.86% (reverse scan), and devices that maintain 96.6% of the initial PCE after 1000 h light soaking.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 51 print issues and online access
$199.00 per year
only $3.90 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
This Supplementary Information file contains detailed Materials and Methods, Supplementary Text, Supplementary Figs. 1 to 38, and Supplementary Tables 1 to 8.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Tan, Q., Li, Z., Luo, G. et al. Inverted perovskite solar cells using dimethylacridine-based dopants. Nature (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06207-0
By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.