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Tara Oceans: towards global ocean ecosystems biology

Abstract

A planetary-scale understanding of the ocean ecosystem, particularly in light of climate change, is crucial. Here, we review the work of Tara Oceans, an international, multidisciplinary project to assess the complexity of ocean life across comprehensive taxonomic and spatial scales. Using a modified sailing boat, the team sampled plankton at 210 globally distributed sites at depths down to 1,000 m. We describe publicly available resources of molecular, morphological and environmental data, and discuss how an ecosystems biology approach has expanded our understanding of plankton diversity and ecology in the ocean as a planetary, interconnected ecosystem. These efforts illustrate how global-scale concepts and data can help to integrate biological complexity into models and serve as a baseline for assessing ecosystem changes and the future habitability of our planet in the Anthropocene epoch.

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Fig. 1: Tara Oceans sampled the global ocean ecosystem.
Fig. 2: Tara Oceans assessed plankton across taxonomic, organismal and environmental scales to study the whole ecosystem.
Fig. 3: Tara Oceans viral, bacterial and archaeal analysis pipeline and highlighted discoveries.
Fig. 4: Tara Oceans analysis of eukaryotic plankton complexity and highlighted discoveries.
Fig. 5: Eukaryotic shapes and symbioses explored by Tara Oceans plankton imaging.
Fig. 6: Ecosystems biology and integrative analyses of the global oceans.

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Acknowledgements

Tara Oceans (which includes the Tara Oceans and Tara Oceans Polar Circle expeditions) would not exist without the leadership of the Tara Ocean Foundation and the continuous support of 23 institutes (https://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/). The authors further thank the commitment of the following sponsors: the French CNRS (in particular Groupement de Recherche GDR3280 and the Research Federation for the Study of Global Ocean Systems Ecology and Evolution FR2022/Tara GOSEE), the French Facility for Global Environment (FFEM), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Genoscope/CEA, the French Ministry of Research and the French Government Investissements d’Avenir programmes OCEANOMICS (ANR-11-BTBR-0008), FRANCE GENOMIQUE (ANR-10-INBS-09-08) and MEMO LIFE (ANR-10-LABX-54), the PSL research university (ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) and EMBRC-France (ANR-10-INBS-02). Funding for the collection and processing of the Tara Oceans data set was provided by the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program under grants NNX11AQ14G, NNX09AU43G, NNX13AE58G and NNX15AC08G (to the University of Maine), the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Remote Sensing of Canada’s New Arctic Frontier and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. The authors also thank agnès b. and E. Bourgois, the Prince Albert II de Monaco Foundation, the Veolia Foundation, Region Bretagne, Lorient Agglomeration, Serge Ferrari, Worldcourier and KAUST for support and commitment. The global sampling effort was made possible by countless scientists and crew who performed sampling aboard the Tara from 2009 to 2013, and the authors thank MERCATOR-CORIOLIS and ACRI-ST for providing daily satellite data during the expeditions. The authors are also grateful to the countries that graciously granted sampling permission. The authors thank N. Le Bescot and N. Henry for their help in designing the figures in this article. C.d.V. thanks the Roscoff Bioinformatics platform ABiMS (http://abims.sb-roscoff.fr). S. Sunagawa thanks the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and ETH Zürich’s high-performance computing facilities for computational support. C.B. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement 835067) as well as the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study at Harvard University for a scholar’s fellowship during the 2016–2017 academic year. M.B.S. thanks the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (award 3790) and the US National Science Foundation (awards OCE#1536989 and OCE#1829831) as well as the Ohio Supercomputer for computational support. S.G.A. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CTM2017-87736-R). F.L. thanks the Institut Universitaire de France as well as the EMBRC platform PIQv for image analysis. S. Sunagawa is supported by ETH Zürich and the Helmut Horten Foundation and by funding from the Swiss National Foundation (205321_184955). The authors declare that all data reported herein are fully and freely available from the date of publication, with no restrictions, and that all of the analyses, publications and ownership of data are free from legal entanglement or restriction by the various nations in whose waters the Tara Oceans expeditions conducted sampling. This article is contribution number 100 of Tara Oceans.

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S. Sunagawa and C.d.V. are the lead authors of the article and all other authors contributed to discussion of the content, writing and editing of the article.

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Correspondence to Shinichi Sunagawa or Colomban de Vargas.

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Related links

Artist profiles: https://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/en/m/art/artists/

Plankton chronicles: http://planktonchronicles.org

Tara Ocean Foundation: https://oceans.taraexpeditions.org/en

Tara Oceans Sample Registry: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875582

Tara Oceans Sequencing: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB402

UniEuk: http://unieuk.org

Supplementary information

Glossary

Epipelagic

Referring to uppermost layer of the ocean that receives sunlight, enabling the organisms inhabiting it to perform photosynthesis.

Mesopelagic

Referring to the ocean layer that receives very little to no sunlight, lying beneath the epipelagic layer, ranging from about 200 to 1,000 m in depth.

Heterotrophic

Capable of incorporating organic carbon into biomass.

Remineralized

Derived from the breakdown of organic matter into its simplest inorganic form.

Mixotrophy

Capacity to incorporate carbon into biomass from either inorganic or organic sources.

Photoheterotrophy

Capacity to derive energy from light and carbon from organic matter.

Haptophytes

Group of single-celled photosynthetic planktonic organisms.

Metagenome-assembled genomes

(MAGs). Consensus genome sequences that are reconstructed using sequencing reads of DNA extracted from whole microbial communities.

Eocene epoch

Second geological epoch of the Palaeogene period (66 million to 23 million years ago) that began 56 million years ago and ended 34 million years ago.

Southern Ocean gateways

Pathways of the oceanic circulation that are influenced by the displacement of continents (for example, the Drake Passage, South African gateway and the Tasman gateway between Antarctica and South America, Africa and Australia, respectively).

Bacterivory

Organisms that obtain carbon and energy primarily from the consumption of bacteria.

Miocene epoch

First geological epoch of the Neogene period (2.6 million to 23 million years ago) that extends from about 23 million to 5 million years ago.

Agulhas choke point

Oceanic system south of Africa where warm and salty Indian Ocean waters leak into the South Atlantic Ocean impacting the global oceanic circulation.

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Sunagawa, S., Acinas, S.G., Bork, P. et al. Tara Oceans: towards global ocean ecosystems biology. Nat Rev Microbiol 18, 428–445 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-0364-5

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