Reversible electrochemical processes are a promising technology for energy-efficient water treatment. Electrochemical desalination is based on the compensation of electric charge by ionic species, through which the ions are immobilized and, thereby, removed from a feed-water stream flowing through a desalination cell. For decades, electrochemical desalination has focused on the use of carbon electrodes, but their salt-removal ability is limited by the mechanism of ion electrosorption at low molar concentrations and low charge-storage capacity. Recently, charge-transfer materials, often found in batteries, have demonstrated much larger charge-storage capacities and energy-efficient desalination at both low and high molar strengths. In this Review, we assess electrochemical-desalination mechanisms and materials, including ion electrosorption and charge-transfer processes, namely, ion binding with redox-active polymers, ion insertion, conversion reactions and redox-active electrolytes. Furthermore, we discuss performance metrics and cell architectures, which we decouple from the nature of the electrode material and the underlying mechanism to show the versatility of cell-design concepts. These charge-transfer processes enable a wealth of environmental applications, ranging from potable-water generation and industrial-water remediation to lithium recovery and heavy-metal-ion removal.
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The authors thank E. Arzt (INM) for his continued support for research on energy materials and electrochemical technologies. V.P. acknowledges funding from the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) through the MXene-CDI project (PR-1173/11), the Leibniz Association through the Carbon Metal-Oxide Nanohybrids project (CarMON) (SAW-2017) and the Minerva Foundation through an Award for Research Cooperation and High Excellence in Science (ARCHES). X.S. acknowledges financial support from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and the support of the National Science Foundation under CBET grant no. 1931941.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Srimuk, P., Su, X., Yoon, J. et al. Charge-transfer materials for electrochemical water desalination, ion separation and the recovery of elements. Nat Rev Mater 5, 517–538 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-020-0193-1
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