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Urban built environments: interventions for reducing cardiometabolic risks

Cities with varied development types and green space are known to be protective for cardiometabolic health, while those with higher traffic-related pollution, access to calorie-dense food and poorer perception of safety are detrimental. These factors should be considered when planning urban developments in lower-income and middle-income countries to reduce cardiometabolic disease burden.

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Fig. 1: A holistic person-place-time framework for studying the aetiology of cardiometabolic diseases.


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C.S. acknowledges support from Hong Kong Research Grant Commission and General Research Fund (GRF grant 17613220), and is a recipient of US National Academy of Medicine — The University of Hong Kong Fellowship in Global Health Leadership.

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Correspondence to Chinmoy Sarkar.

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Sarkar, C., Lai, K.Y. Urban built environments: interventions for reducing cardiometabolic risks. Nat Rev Endocrinol 19, 315–316 (2023).

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