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All-in-one two-dimensional retinomorphic hardware device for motion detection and recognition


With the advent of the Internet of Things era, the detection and recognition of moving objects is becoming increasingly important1. The current motion detection and recognition (MDR) technology based on the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) platform contains redundant sensing, transmission conversion, processing and memory modules, rendering the existing systems bulky and inefficient in comparison to the human retina. Until now, non-memory capable vision sensors have only been used for static targets, rather than MDR. Here, we present a retina-inspired two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure based retinomorphic hardware device with all-in-one perception, memory and computing capabilities for the detection and recognition of moving trolleys. The proposed 2D retinomorphic device senses an optical stimulus to generate progressively tuneable positive/negative photoresponses and memorizes it, combined with interframe differencing computations, to achieve 100% separation detection of moving trichromatic trolleys without ghosting. The detected motion images are fed into a conductance mapped neural network to achieve fast trolley recognition in as few as four training epochs at 10% noise level, outperforming previous results from similar customized datasets. The prototype demonstration of a 2D retinomorphic device with integrated perceptual memory and computation provides the possibility of building compact, efficient MDR hardware.

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Fig. 1: Retina-inspired 2D retinomorphic hardware for MDR.
Fig. 2: Photoconductivity properties of 2D retinomorphic devices for MDR.
Fig. 3: Illustration of motion detection based on the 2D retinomorphic hardware.
Fig. 4: 2D retinomorphic hardware implementation for trichromatic trolley MDR.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request. Source data are provided with this paper.

Code availability

The codes used for the simulation are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 61925402, 61851402, 61725505, 11734016 and 62090032), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (grant nos. 19JC1416600 and 21JC1406100) and Shanghai Education Development Foundation and Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Shuguang Program (grant no. 18SG01).

Author information




Z.Z. and S.W. designed and conducted the experiments. P.Z. and W.H. conceived the idea. R.X. supported the characterization of materials. C.L. provided assistance with mechanism analysis and discussion. S.W. and Z.Z. wrote the manuscript and all authors contributed to the revision of the paper.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Weida Hu or Peng Zhou.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Han Zhang and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Sections 1–11 containing Supplementary Figs. 1–11 and corresponding discussions.

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Source Data Fig. 3

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Zhang, Z., Wang, S., Liu, C. et al. All-in-one two-dimensional retinomorphic hardware device for motion detection and recognition. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2021).

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