Over the past decade, exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have revealed themselves as one of the richest realizations of a light-based quantum fluid1, subject to fascinating new physics and potential applications2,3,4,5,6. For instance, in the regime of large two-body interactions, polaritons can be used to manipulate the quantum properties of a light field7,8,9. In this work, we report on the emergence of quantum correlations in laser light transmitted through a fibre-cavity polariton system. We observe a dispersive shape of the autocorrelation function around the polariton resonance that indicates the onset of this regime. The weak amplitude of these correlations indicates a state that still remains far from a low-photon-number state. Nonetheless, given the underlying physical mechanism7, our work opens up the prospect of eventually using polaritons to turn laser light into single photons.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 25 October 2022
Light: Science & Applications Open Access 14 April 2022
Communications Physics Open Access 03 February 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
All data presented in this work are available on request from the authors.
Carusotto, I. & Ciuti, C. Quantum fluids of light. Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 299–366 (2013).
Berloff, N. G. et al. Realizing the classical XY Hamiltonian in polariton simulators. Nat. Mater. 16, 1120–1126 (2017).
Jacqmin, T. et al. Direct observation of Dirac cones and a flatband in a honeycomb lattice for polaritons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 116402 (2014).
Baboux, F. et al. Bosonic condensation and disorder-induced localization in a flat band. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 066402 (2016).
Dagvadorj, G. et al. Nonequilibrium phase transition in a two-dimensional driven open quantum system. Phys. Rev. X 5, 041028 (2015).
Klembt, S., Stepanov, P., Klein, T., Minguzzi, A. & Richard, M. Thermal decoherence of a nonequilibrium polariton quantum fluid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 035301 (2018).
Verger, A., Ciuti, C. & Carusotto, I. Polariton quantum blockade in a photonic dot. Phys. Rev. B 73, 193306 (2006).
Boulier, T. et al. Polariton-generated intensity squeezing in semiconductor micropillars. Nat. Commun. 5, 3260 (2014).
Cuevas, Á. et al. First observation of the quantized exciton-polariton field and effect of interactions on a single polariton. Sci. Adv. 4, eaao6814 (2018).
Savasta, S., Stefano, O. D., Savona, V. & Langbein, W. Quantum complementarity of microcavity polaritons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 246401 (2005).
Amo, A. et al. Exciton-polariton spin switches. Nat. Photon. 4, 361–366 (2010).
Birnbaum, K. M. et al. Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom. Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
Lang, C. et al. Observation of resonant photon blockade at microwave frequencies using correlation function measurements. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 243601 (2011).
Liebisch, T. C., Reinhard, A., Berman, P. R. & Raithel, G. Atom counting statistics in ensembles of interacting Rydberg atoms. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253002 (2005).
Jia, N. et al. A strongly interacting polaritonic quantum dot. Nat. Phys. 14, 550–554 (2018).
Faraon, A. et al. Coherent generation of non-classical light on a chip via photon-induced tunnelling and blockade. Nat. Phys. 4, 859–863 (2008).
Reinhard, A. et al. Strongly correlated photons on a chip. Nat. Photon. 6, 93–96 (2012).
Walker, P. M. et al. Dark solitons in high velocity waveguide polariton fluids. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017).
Deveaud, B. et al. Excitonic effects in the luminescence of quantum wells. Chem. Phys. 318, 104–117 (2005).
Besga, B. et al. Polariton boxes in a tunable fiber cavity. Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 014008 (2015).
Reitzenstein, S. et al. AlAs/GaAs micropillar cavities with quality factors exceeding 150.000. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251109 (2007).
Wood, A., Vidal, X., Muñoz-Matutano, G. & Volz, T. Non-invasive zero delay calibration of Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometer. Measurement https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.01.079 (2019).
Amo, A. et al. Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
Ferrier, L. et al. Interactions in confined polariton condensates. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 126401 (2011).
Delteil, A. et al. Towards polariton blockade of confined exciton-polaritons. Nat. Mater. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0282-y (2019).
Casteels, W., Rota, R., Storme, F. & Ciuti, C. Probing photon correlations in the dark sites of geometrically frustrated cavity lattices. Phys. Rev. A 93, 043833 (2016).
Carusotto, I. et al. Fermionized photons in an array of driven dissipative nonlinear cavities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 033601 (2009).
Miller, D. A. B. Are optical transistors the logical next step?. Nat. Photon. 4, 3–5 (2010).
Noh, C. & Angelakis, D. G. Quantum simulations and many-body physics with light. Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 016401 (2017).
Hadfield, R. H. Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications. Nat. Photon. 3, 696–705 (2009).
We thank S. Martin and D. Taylor from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Lindfield – New South Wales) for their technical support. This work was funded by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems (CE110001013 and CE170100009). A.L., J.B., A.A. and M.R. acknowledge support from the French Agence National de la Recherche (contract no. ANR-16-CE30-0021).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Muñoz-Matutano, G., Wood, A., Johnsson, M. et al. Emergence of quantum correlations from interacting fibre-cavity polaritons. Nature Mater 18, 213–218 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0281-z
This article is cited by
Nature Reviews Physics (2022)
Light: Science & Applications (2022)
Communications Physics (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)