How do people represent their own and others’ emotional experiences? Contemporary emotion theories and growing evidence suggest that the conceptual representation of emotion plays a central role in how people understand the emotions both they and other people feel1,2,3,4,5,6. Although decades of research indicate that adults typically represent emotion concepts as multidimensional, with valence (positive–negative) and arousal (activating–deactivating) as two primary dimensions7,8,9,10, little is known about how this bidimensional (or circumplex) representation arises11. Here we show that emotion representations develop from a monodimensional focus on valence to a bidimensional focus on both valence and arousal from age 6 to age 25. We investigated potential mechanisms underlying this effect and found that increasing verbal knowledge mediated the development of emotion representation over and above three other potential mediators: fluid reasoning, the general ability to represent non-emotional stimuli bidimensionally and task-related behaviours (for example, using extreme ends of rating scales). These results indicate that verbal development aids the expansion of emotion concept representations (and potentially emotional experiences) from a ‘positive or negative’ dichotomy in childhood to a multidimensional organization in adulthood.
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We thank C. R. M. Bolden, A. Dews, E. Fearey, M. Garrad, T. Gogue-Garcia, K. Kent, A. Sareen, M. Sirak, T. Stacy, C. Stavish and C. Uhrig for assistance with data collection; J. Snedeker for discussion; and P. Mair and members of Harvard University’s Institute for Quantitative Social Science for guidance on statistical analyses. This work was supported by a Harvard University seed grant to L.H.S., a National Institutes of Mental Health grant to K.A.M. (R01-MH103291), and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (grant DGE1144152) to E.C.N. Funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nook, E.C., Sasse, S.F., Lambert, H.K. et al. Increasing verbal knowledge mediates development of multidimensional emotion representations. Nat Hum Behav 1, 881–889 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0238-7
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