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Behavioural tasks often require probability distributions to be inferred about task specific variables. Here, the authors demonstrate that generic neural networks can be trained using a simple error-based learning rule to perform such probabilistic computations efficiently without any need for task specific operations.
Sexuality is an important aspect of existence and a fulfilling intimate life can be a facilitator of well-being, self-esteem, and general resilience. Moreover, it can strengthen coping, adherence, and survivorship skills of chronically ill patients. Health-care professionals should, therefore, routinely address issues of sex and intimacy.
Europe has witnessed an increase in covert cultural racism that is reflected in recent political turmoil in its nation-states. Far-right movements and populists are exploiting fear about existential and ontological threats to spur the exclusion of unwanted ‘others’, such as Muslims, Roma, and refugees.
Recent theories propose that perceptions, decisions, and behaviour rely on many rational neural observers that work to predict the value of stimuli and actions. This Bayesian framework has now advanced into new territory through a study of dopamine's influence on the integration of sensory (new) and prior (old) information in Parkinson's disease.
Many countries around the world have serious corruption problems at the expense of public welfare. An experimental economic study now identifies conditions that encourage leaders to accept bribes instead of sanctioning free-riders. Possible anti-corruption strategies can have positive effects, fail or even backfire.