Therapeutic T cells with desired specificity can be engineered by introducing T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for antigens of interest, such as those from pathogens or tumour cells. However, TCR engineering is challenging, owing to the complex heterodimeric structure of the receptor and to competition and mispairing between endogenous and transgenic receptors. Additionally, conventional TCR insertion disrupts the regulation of TCR dynamics, with consequences for T-cell function. Here, we report the outcomes and validation, using five different TCRs, of the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) with non-virally delivered template DNA for the elimination of endogenous TCR chains and for the orthotopic placement of TCRs in human T cells. We show that, whereas the editing of a single receptor chain results in chain mispairing, simultaneous editing of α- and β-chains combined with orthotopic TCR placement leads to accurate αβ-pairing and results in TCR regulation similar to that of physiological T cells.
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The authors declare that all data generated or analysed for this study are available within the paper and its Supplementary Information. The sequences of HDR DNA templates are provided in the Supplementary Dataset. Additional raw data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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We thank members of the Busch laboratory for experimental help and critical discussion, particularly M. Hammel, F. Mohr, S. Dötsch, E. d’Ippolito and V. R. Buchholz. We also thank L. Germeroth (Juno Therapeutics) for critical discussion. This work was mainly supported by the German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF).
D.H.B. is co-founder of STAGE Cell Therapeutics GmbH (now Juno Therapeutics/Celgene) and T Cell Factory B.V. (now Kite/Gilead). D.H.B. has a consulting contract with and receives sponsored research support from Juno Therapeutics/Celgene. M.P. and C.S. are employees of Juno Therapeutics/Celgene. A.M. is on the scientific advisory board of PACT Pharma, serves as an advisor to Sonoma Biotherapeutics and previously served as an advisor to Juno Therapeutics and is a co-founder of Spotlight Therapeutics and Arsenal Biosciences. T.L.R. is a co-founder of Arsenal Biosciences. The Marson lab has received sponsored research support from Epinomics, Juno Therapeutics and Sanofi, and a gift from Gilead. A.M. and T.L.R. have previously filed related patent applications.
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