Abstract
A well known semiconductor Cd_{3}As_{2} has reentered the spotlight due to its unique electronic structure and quantum transport phenomena as a topological Dirac semimetal. For elucidating and controlling its topological quantum state, highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} thin films have been highly desired. Here we report the development of an elaborate growth technique of highcrystallinity and highmobility Cd_{3}As_{2} films with controlled thicknesses and the observation of quantum Hall effect dependent on the film thickness. With decreasing the film thickness to 10 nm, the quantum Hall states exhibit variations such as a change in the spin degeneracy reflecting the Dirac dispersion with a large Fermi velocity. Details of the electronic structure including subband splitting and gap opening are identified from the quantum transport depending on the confinement thickness, suggesting the presence of a twodimensional topological insulating phase. The demonstration of quantum Hall states in our highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} films paves a road to study quantum transport and device application in topological Dirac semimetal and its derivative phases.
Introduction
Topological materials, which are characterized by a nontrivial electronic band topology, have great potential for unprecedented quantum transport phenomena^{1,2,3,4,5}. Among them, the topological Dirac semimetal (DSM) has attracted burgeoning attention as emergence of Dirac fermions in threedimensional (3D) materials^{1,2,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14}. The 3D DSM state is particularly intriguing as a parent phase of exotic topological phases such as 3D topological insulator^{3}, Weyl semimetal^{4}, and twodimensional (2D) topological insulator^{5,6}, which are realized by symmetry breaking in DSM^{1,2,7}. As crystalline materials of 3D DSM, Cd_{3}As_{2} and Na_{3}Bi have been theoretically suggested^{6,8}, and their key electronic structures have been directly confirmed by angleresolved photoemission and scanning tunneling spectroscopy^{7,9,10,11,12}. A classification scheme of DSM in terms of the crystal point group symmetry has also been developed^{13}.
In this context, fabrication of DSM thin films is of crucial importance for exploring its potential as prototypical topological materials. Unlike other topological materials, however, it has been highly challenging to prepare highquality DSM films. While Cd_{3}As_{2} has been known as a stable II–V type semiconductor from the early period, its film quality has been limited due to the necessity of lowtemperature growth for resolving its high volatility (Fig. 1a)^{15,16,17,18,19}. Its electronic structure consists of conduction bands (CB) and valence bands (VB) with inverted orbital character, touching to form a 3D Dirac dispersion centered at the Dirac points ±k _{D} (Fig. 1b). So far most of the transport studies including surface transport have been reported for bulk samples^{20,21,22,23,24,25}. Tailoring confined Cd_{3}As_{2} films with the Dirac dispersion thus opens up new avenues for research of quantized transport in this novel Dirac system such as by gate modulation^{26}.
Here we report the development of a growth technique to prepare highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} films and the observation of thicknessdependent quantum Hall effect. The films are epitaxially grown on an oxide substrate with accurately controlled thicknesses, yielding better crystallinity as compared to bulk singlecrystals. As theoretically predicted for DSM^{6}, successive topological phase transitions to the 2D topological insulator and trivial insulator should occur through the quantum confinement (Fig. 1c, d), if the system becomes 2D in rather thick films. Owing to the large Fermi velocity of the Dirac dispersion, 2D quantum Hall states are actually observed up to such a thick (~23 nm) film.
Results
Epitaxial Film Growth
Highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} singlecrystalline thin films are fabricated by combining pulsed laser deposition and solid phase epitaxy techniques (for details see Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2, 4, and 5). Hightemperature annealing made possible by an optimized combination of double capping layers (Si_{3}N_{4}/TiO_{2}) and substrate (SrTiO_{3}) significantly improves the crystallinity and the electron mobility of the films. The film triangular lattice is epitaxially grown on the substrate square lattice with aligned inplane axes, owing to a good match of their projected lattice distances. As confirmed in the transmission electron microscopy image (Fig. 1e, f), the Cd and As atoms are periodically arranged to form the lowtemperature Cd_{3}As_{2} structure without any discernible crystallographic defects. In the typical xray diffraction pattern (Fig. 1g), Bragg peaks of the (112)oriented Cd_{3}As_{2} film are observed with clear Laue oscillations consistent with the designed film thickness. The rocking curve of the film peak has a full width at half maximum of 0.02 degrees, which is sharper than typical values (~0.08 degrees) reported for Cd_{3}As_{2} singlecrystals^{20}.
Quantum Transport Measurement
Figure 2 summarizes highfield magnetotransport for a set of films with the same carrier density (n = 1 × 10^{18} cm^{−3}) and different thicknesses (t = 12, 14, 16, and 23 nm). Shubnikovde Haas (SdH) oscillations and corresponding plateaulike structures are resolved from a few teslas in longitudinal resistance R _{xx} and Hall resistance R _{yx}. As the field increases, integer quantum Hall states clearly emerge down to the quantum limit with filling factor ν = 2. R _{xx} is further suppressed and finally becomes zero. Simultaneously, R _{yx} exhibits quantized values over wide field ranges, which are expressed as 1/R _{yx} = −ν(e ^{2}/h) = −sn(e ^{2}/h), with the degeneracy factor s and a nonnegative integer n. A swell around the quantized values confirmed for thinner films is probably an artifact typically appearing in pulsed field measurements of such high resistance samples^{27}. Although such deformations of transport data taken in pulsed fields were corrected by calculating the effective current through the sample as detailed in Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6, they cannot be completely removed so far. Absence of the halfinteger plateaus suggests that a gap starts to open under the quantum confinement. Furthermore, the degeneracy factor s shows a dramatic change depending on the film thickness, governing the appearance of the quantum Hall effect. It is altered from s = 2 to 1 when the thickness increases only by 2 nm from t = 14 to 16 nm. For clarifying the origin of this change, we analyze the quantum transport in detail.
The temperature dependence of the SdH oscillations was analyzed for the whole series of Cd_{3}As_{2} films, in order to extract effective masses and also quantum scattering times using the Dingle expression^{28}. For the 12 nm film, as a typical example, the oscillation amplitude gradually decreases with elevating temperature but remains finite up to about 100 K (Fig. 3a). Its temperature dependence is suitably fitted to the standard LifshitzKosevich formula (Fig. 3b), giving the effective mass of m ^{*} = 0.042m _{0}. This light effective mass originating from the Dirac dispersion is in good agreement with values reported for bulk Cd_{3}As_{2} ^{20,21,22,23,24,25}.
A Landaulevel fan diagram is plotted by following maxima and minima in the SdH oscillations (Fig. 3c). The slope dominant in the lowfield region corresponds to the primary oscillation from the main Fermi surface as detailed later. In the thicker 16 and 23 nm films, on the other hand, the slope reduces almost by half above the critical field B _{c}, indicating a change in the degeneracy from s = 2 to 1. This change is attributed to spin splitting, not to the lifting of other degeneracies, e.g., of valley or surface states. Quantum confinement is predicted to cause a change in the g factor depending on the confinement thickness. In bulk Cd_{3}As_{2}, spin splitting of the oscillations is observed above B ~ 10 T^{25}, as in the thick 23 nm film, and the g factor is estimated at g ~ 15^{12,25,29}. Reflecting the existence of other neighboring bands, the g factor varies in inverse proportion to quadratic expression of the band gap E _{g}, according to the Roth equation derived in the secondorder k ⋅ p perturbation theory^{30}. The observed thickness dependence of the degeneracy can be thus understood from the rapid opening of the gap due to the confinement. Additionally, the Berry’s phase ϕ _{B} can be estimated from the intercept in the fan diagram, based on the expression of the oscillating term^{28}. The intercept γ is typically about −0.3, which corresponds to a nontrivial Berry’s phase of ϕ _{B} ~ 0.4π, indicating the presence of relativistic Dirac fermions in the confined dispersion.
From the Fourier transformation of the SdH oscillations, further information about the 2D Fermi surface can be extracted (Fig. 3d). By applying the Onsager relation A _{F} = (4π ^{2} e/h)B _{F} to the primary oscillation frequency B _{F,1}, the Fermi surface area A _{F} is calculated to be A _{F} = 3.3 × 10^{−3} Å^{−2} for the 12 nm film, for example. The dimensional change is also reflected in a clear fieldangle dependence of the oscillation and magnetoresistance, as shown in Supplementary Figs. 8 and 10. The Fermi energy E _{F}, measured from the Dirac points, is estimated to be E _{F} = 116 meV by using \(k_{\mathrm{F}} = \sqrt {A_{\mathrm{F}}{\mathrm{/}}\pi } = 0.032\) Å^{−1} and v _{F} = ħk _{F}/m ^{*} = 8.9 × 10^{5} m/s in the following reported hyperbolic dispersion with an onset energy of E _{0} = 50 meV and an energy difference between the conduction band bottom and the Dirac points of E _{CB} = 35 meV^{6,12}.
For the thicker 16 and 23 nm films, another peak B _{F,2} is detected at lower frequencies, which is ascribed to the subband splitting due to the quantum confinement. The subband electronic structure is also evaluated assuming the same Fermi velocity and onset energy.
Discussion
The various quantum Hall states appearing in the Cd_{3}As_{2} films can be comprehensively explained by considering a confinement effect on the original Dirac dispersion as schematised in Fig. 4a, b. For a more quantitative understanding, electronic band structures along the inplane momentum direction (k _{⊥[112]}) and the film normal direction (k _{[112]}) are summarized in Fig. 4c, d. In Fig. 4c, k _{F} and E _{F} determined from the above analysis of the SdH oscillations using the dispersion relationship are plotted along the inplane momentum direction. Here the band edge positions are interpolated from previous calculations^{17}. The band gap E _{g} is also almost consistent within the error bars with estimations from the g factor change (for details see Methods).
The quantum confinement condition along the film normal direction is given by the following formula^{31},
or
Here t is the film thickness, n _{c} is an integer numbering the confined subband, and δ(E) is the total phase shift at the interfaces (for details see Methods). In the structural plot expressing this relationship in Fig. 4d, the crossing point of the original dispersions (k _{[112]} (E)) and the quantization condition curves ((2πn _{c} − δ(E))/2t) determines energy and momentum of the bottom of the subbands for each thickness. This agrees rather well with the experimental trends including the appearance of the second subband (n _{c} = 2) above 16 nm. Reflecting the large Fermi velocity of the Dirac dispersion, the band gap sharply opens when the confinement thickness decreases below 23 nm, giving rise to the dramatic g factor change observed in the quantum Hall effect. The band character inversion, which occurs when crossing projected k _{D}, is also confirmed between t = 12 and 23 nm, as denoted by the CB character change from blue (Cd 5s) to pink (As 4p). In the case of the thick films where the subband is located inside the projected k _{D}, the gap energy and g factor become nearly unchanged.
Novel topological phases derived from the 3D DSM state can be expected for the highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} films. As illustrated in Fig. 1b–d, for example, topological phase transitions to 2D topological (quantum spin Hall) insulator and trivial insulator, as proposed in the original theoretical work of topological states in Cd_{3}As_{2} ^{6}, should be induced by the confinement as long as the system remains 2D. Surprisingly, the two dimensionality is maintained up to 23 nm, where the orbital character only of the first subband (n _{c} = 1) is inverted, suggesting the presence of a 2D topological insulating phase at this thickness. Below this thickness, another topological phase transition to a trivial insulating phase occurs associated with the sharp change in the g factor as confirmed in the thicknessdependent quantum Hall states. Since a magnetic field destroys the 2D topological insulating state by breaking timereversal symmetry, nonlocal transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements are highly desirable for its further investigation. Applying electric gating, heterostructure fabrication, and chemical doping to such highquality Cd_{3}As_{2} films will open possibilities for further studying quantum transport and device application by tuning Fermi level, hybridization gap, and magnetic interaction in this system.
Methods
Epitaxial Film Growth
While Cd_{3}As_{2} has been known as a highmobility semiconductor over half a century^{32}, its highquality thin film growth has been quite challenging. In the 1970s and 80s, rather thicker films than 1 μm were grown by evaporating bulk Cd_{3}As_{2} with a heater^{15,33,34,35,36} or a highrepetitionrate laser^{16,37}, as plotted in Supplementary Fig. 1. More recently, since the topological Dirac semimetal state has been proposed for this system^{6}, a more elaborate approach using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has realized the epitaxial growth of singlecrystalline thin films^{17,18,19,38}. Compared to bulk Cd_{3}As_{2}, however, their crystallinity and mobility are still limited due to the lowtemperature growth. In this situation, we have developed and improved a hightemperature annealing technique with combining pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and obtained highcrystallinity and highmobility epitaxial thin films comparable to bulk quality. The mobility reaches maximum of μ = 3 × 10^{4} cm^{2}/Vs for n = 1 × 10^{18} cm^{−3}, while it intrinsically decreases with reducing dimensions (thickness) from three (≳80 nm) to two (≲40 nm).
Cd_{3}As_{2} films and TiO_{2}/Si_{3}N_{4} capping layers were deposited using KrF excimer laser. Optimization of the capping materials and their combinations has enabled hightemperature annealing of the film, while the idea of adopting a protective layer was already tried for Cd_{3}As_{2} growth^{15}. A Cd_{3}As_{2} polycrystalline target was prepared by mixing 6N5 Cd and 7N5 As shots at a ratio of 3:2, keeping the mixture at 950 °C for 48 h in a vacuumsealed silica tube, grinding and pelletizing the compound, and then resintering it at 250 °C for 30 h. The three layers were successively deposited on (001) SrTiO_{3} singlecrystalline substrates, at room temperature and below a base pressure of 10^{−7} Torr. Typical laser conditions (fluences, repetition rates) were (0.6 J/cm^{2}, 10 Hz), (4 J/cm^{2}, 20 Hz), and (4 J/cm^{2}, 20 Hz), for Cd_{3}As_{2}, TiO_{2}, and Si_{3}N_{4}, respectively. The shape of the Hall bar, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2d, was defined by employing a stencil metal mask for the successive deposition of the Cd_{3}As_{2} and TiO_{2} layers, while the Si_{3}N_{4} layer was then deposited on the entire substrate to cover the Hall bar edges. After annealing the sample at 600 °C in air, an (112)oriented Cd_{3}As_{2} film is formed through epitaxial crystallization.
Supplementary Fig. 2 demonstrates the annealing effect probed by xray diffraction (XRD). A sample consisting of Cd_{3}As_{2} (14 nm) and TiO_{2} (30 nm)/Si_{3}N_{4} (200 nm) layers shows only the SrTiO_{3} substrate peaks before annealing. After annealing the sample at 600 °C in air, in stark contrast, (112)oriented Cd_{3}As_{2} film peaks become clearly evident through epitaxial crystallization. Three different periodic components from the respective layers remain observed in both the Kiessig fringes. Many combinations of other substrates (Al_{2}O_{3}, BaF_{2}, CaF_{2}, InP, CdTe, mica) and capping materials (Cr:Al_{2}O_{3}, SiO_{2}, MgO, CaF_{2}, Si) were also tested, but they resulted in chemical reaction to substrates, cracking of capping layers, or poor crystallinity of the films. As shown in Supplementary Fig. 3, TiO_{2}/Si_{3}N_{4} capping layer conduction, which is probably due to slightly oxygendeficient TiO_{2} deposited under the high vacuum, is more dominant at high temperatures above about 100 K, particularly for thinner Cd_{3}As_{2} films with higher resistance. At low temperatures, on the other hand, the capping layers become highly insulating and only the Cd_{3}As_{2} film conduction remains, ensuring intrinsic quantum transport measurements of the Cd_{3}As_{2} films.
Detailed XRD data of the obtained epitaxial film, confirming its high crystallinity and flatness, are summarized in Supplementary Fig. 4. A magnification around the (224) film peak shows clear Laue oscillations consistent with the designed thickness. A rocking curve of the peak has a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.02 degrees, which is sharper than the typical value (0.08 degrees) reported for bulk Cd_{3}As_{2} singlecrystals^{20}. A ϕ scan with twelvefold symmetry reveals that the inplane [1\(\bar 1\)0] axis is exactly aligned with the [100] or [010] axes in the substrate, depending on two possible stacking patterns of the sixfold triangular lattice on the substrate square lattice. One reason of the successful epitaxial growth is probably that the projected lattice distance of the Cd_{3}As_{2} layer (3.88 Å) has a good match with the SrTiO_{3} one (3.91 Å). The domain size is estimated at about a few tens of microns from the STEM observations on various areas, which are comparable to the channel length scale (~60 μm) but much larger than the magnetic length \(l_{\mathrm{B}} = \sqrt {\hbar {\mathrm{/}}eB}\) (~26 nm at 1 T).
Atomicscale images of the Cd_{3}As_{2} singlecrystalline film are displayed in Supplementary Fig. 5, taken with crosssection highangle annular darkfield scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADFSTEM) and energy dispersive xray spectrometry (EDX). Cd and As atoms are periodically arranged without any clear crystallographic defects over a wide area. A shift of Cd atoms present in the lowtemperature phase is also detected in the magnified image. From this view direction, it is difficult to determine whether the originally proposed (I4_{1} cd)^{39} or the recently corrected (I4_{1}/acd)^{40} structure is formed in the film, while both have the similar electronic structure.
Quantum Transport Measurement
Transport measurements up to 55 T were performed using a nondestructive pulsed magnet with a pulse duration of 37 ms at the International MegaGauss Science Laboratory at the Institute for Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo. Longitudinal resistance R _{xx} and Hall resistance R _{yx} were measured on the 60 μmwidth multiterminal Hall bar with flowing a DC current of I = 5 μA. In this Hall bar configuration, unexpected effects on the transport such as the current jetting effect in highmobility semimetals are avoided. Aluminum electrode wires were connected to the Hall bar edges by using an ultrasonic bonding machine and then their connections were reinforced by applying silver paste. Small deformations of transport data taken in the pulsed magnetic fields were corrected based on a simple classic model^{27}. In general, when measuring a resistive sample in pulsed fields, a small capacitive component connected parallel to the sample is slightly charged or discharged depending on the resistance change, leading to nonnegligible time variation of an effective current through the sample. With the increase in the sample resistance R _{xx}, the effective current i _{x} deviates more from the original set current I, and the deformations become more serious. By numerically solving the following differential equation detailed in ref.^{27} with a capacitance of C = 4–9 nF, we could calculate the exact current i _{x} and obtain data showing negligibly small hysteresis between forward and backward field sweeps, as exemplified in Supplementary Fig. 6.
Supplementary Fig. 7 demonstrates R _{xx} for the 12 nm Cd_{3}As_{2} film, measured from 1.4 to 50 K in the pulsed high fields. R _{xx} minima at the ν = 2 quantum Hall state slowly increase from zero with elevating temperature, which can be well fitted with the standard Arrhenius plot. Obtained high activation energy of Δ = 19 K is ascribed to the unusually high Fermi velocity in Cd_{3}As_{2}.
At low fields, R _{xx} and R _{yx} were measured using a Quantum Design Physical Properties Measurement System cryostat equipped with a 9 or 14 T superconducting magnet. Supplementary Fig. 8 plots the data in the lowfield region for films of various thicknesses, showing clear Shubnikovde Haas (SdH) oscillations and Hall plateaus from a few teslas. The degeneracy factor s in the quantization formula can be extracted from the increment of the plateau values. Change of the degeneracy from s = 2–1 is observed for the 23 nm film at low fields, indicating that spin splitting of oscillations occurs above about 12 T. Apparent degeneracy of s = 4 observed for the 16 nm (from ν = 16–12) and 23 nm (from ν = 20–16) films is ascribable to subband crossing. Corresponding beating pattern due to the existence of another subband can be also confirmed in R _{xx} for the 16 and 23 nm films. In contrast to the films below 23 nm, the Hall plateaus in R _{yx} become much less pronounced in the 37 nm film and almost completely disappear for the 100 nm film. This suggests that the system gradually changes from twodimensional (2D) to threedimensional (3D) around 40 nm.
Supplementary Fig. 9 compares temperature dependence of the SdH oscillations and their analysis to extract effective mass (m ^{*}) and quantum scattering time (τ _{q}) following the Dingle expression^{28}.
Here ΔR _{xx}/R _{0} is the oscillation amplitude normalized by the zerofield resistance and ω _{c} = eB/m ^{*} is the cyclotron frequency. To investigate the main conduction band, the analysis is performed assuming a single band, although the oscillation amplitude at each Landau index is affected by the existence of other subbands for the 16 and 23 nm films. The effective mass is slightly decreased with decrease of the confinement thickness, probably due to the dispersion curvature change associated with the gap opening.
Supplementary Fig. 10 shows angulardependent SdH oscillations in R _{xx}, measured also with a conventional superconducting magnet. When the applied magnetic field is tilted from outofplane (θ = 0°) to inplane (90°) direction in the 23 nm film, the oscillation period as well as the amplitude is substantially reduced. A gradual dimensional change from a cylindrical (2D) Fermi surface to a spherical (3D) Fermi surface is observed between 23 and 100 nm, consistent with the thickness dependence of Hall plateaus in Supplementary Fig. 8. For the 37 nm film, a cylindrical but corrugated (quasi2D) Fermi surface is confirmed in the beginning of the dimensional change. Weak corrugation can be confirmed also for the 23 nm, but the 23 nm film rather closer to 3D shows much higher second frequency B _{F,2} than the 16 nm one, eliminating the possibility of the neck orbit as a cause of B _{F,2}. Along with this dimensional change, considerably large negative magnetoresistance probably due to so called chiral anomaly^{14} is also observed for the B  I configuration (θ = 90°) on the Hall bar.
Landaulevel fan diagrams magnified around the origins are shown in Supplementary Fig. 11 for all the thicknesses. The Berry’s phase ϕ _{B} can be estimated from the intercept γ − δ in the fan diagram, on the basis of the following expression of the oscillating term in ΔR _{xx} ^{28}.
Here B _{F} is the SdH oscillation frequency, γ is the phase factor expressed as γ = 1/2 − ϕ _{B}/2π, and δ is the phase shift being zero in two dimensions. For the 12 and 14 nm films, the intercept is about −0.3, which corresponds to the nontrivial Berry’s phase of ϕ _{B} ~ 0.4π. In Cd_{3}As_{2}, the Berry’s phase extracted from the intercept has been highly scattered and controversial^{17,20,21,24,25,41,42,43}. According to the recent theoretical calculation^{43}, when the Fermi energy is located above the saddle point of the two Dirac dispersions as in the cases of the previously reported carrier densities, the nontrivial phases at ±k _{D} are canceled out \(\left( {\phi _{\mathrm{B}} = \phi _{{\mathrm{B}}, + k_{\mathrm{D}}} + \phi _{{\mathrm{B}},  k_{\mathrm{D}}} = 0} \right)\). In our twodimensional case, however, the nontrivial Berry’s phase remains finite without the cancellation within the confined subband, indicating the presence of the relativistic Dirac fermions therein. For the 16 and 23 nm films, modulated behavior due to formation of the other subbands makes it difficult to evaluate the intercept accurately.
Further lowtemperature quantum transport was also measured using a dilution refrigerator. In Supplementary Fig. 12, R _{xx} and R _{yx} taken at 40 mK for the 12 nm film are compared to 2 K ones, showing no major difference between them. So far, no more fine structures such as fractional quantum Hall states are confirmed in the present samples even at this ultralow temperature up to 14 T.
Construction of electronic structure
The band gap E _{g} is also estimated from the g factor change in the following Roth equation, which is derived in the second order of the k ⋅ p perturbation theory^{30}.
Here Δ is the spin–orbit splitting energy (0.27 eV)^{29} and E _{p} is the energy equivalent of the principal interband momentum matrix element (−0.68 eV). E _{g} is estimated at ≳110, ≳110, ~55, and ~30 meV for the 12, 14, 16 and 23 nm films, by using the above parameters and respective g factors (≲5, ≲5, ~9, and ~15). These electronic structures parameters are summarized in Table 1.
The total phase shift at both interfaces was estimated as a function of the binding energy E _{B} by assigning band gap values E _{g} and chemical potential differences Δϕ of SrTiO_{3}, TiO_{2}, and Cd_{3}As_{2} to the following empirical formula^{44}.
Data Availability
The data supporting the plots within the paper and its Supplementary Information File are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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Acknowledgements
We acknowledge fruitful discussions with R. Arita, T. Koretsune, S. Nakosai, R. Yoshimi, M. Kawamura, K. Muraki, K. Ishizaka, M. Hirschberger, and T. Liang. We also thank M. Tanaka, S. Ohya, and A. Kikkawa for technical advice about the handling of arsenides. This work was supported by JST CREST Grant No. JPMJCR16F1, Japan and by GrantinAids for Scientific Research (S) No. JP24226002, Scientific Research (C) No. JP15K05140, Young Scientists (A) No. JP15H05425, and Scientific Research on Innovative Areas “Topological Materials Science” No. JP16H00980 from MEXT, Japan.
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M.U. and M.Kawasaki conceived the project. M.U., Y.N. and S.N. synthesized the bulk targets with M.Kriener and grew the thin films. M.U., Y.N., K.A., A.M. and M.T. performed the highfield measurements. M.U. analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript with input from all authors. Y.K., Y.Taguchi, M.T., N.N., Y.Tokura and M.Kawasaki jointly discussed the results.
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Uchida, M., Nakazawa, Y., Nishihaya, S. et al. Quantum Hall states observed in thin films of Dirac semimetal Cd_{3}As_{2} . Nat Commun 8, 2274 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467017024231
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467017024231
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