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Reduced masticatory performance and not using dentures are associated with hypertension in older adults with tooth loss: the Shimane CoHRE study

Abstract

The relationship between masticatory performance and hypertension has seldom been studied. The association between hypertension and tooth loss with/without denture use is unclear. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between hypertension and masticatory performance and whether the relationship between hypertension and the number of teeth varied with denture use among older Japanese adults. Hypertension was defined as a systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥140 or ≥90 mm Hg, respectively, or the use of antihypertensive medications. Masticatory performance was assessed using a chewable gummy jelly. The number of teeth and denture use were visually assessed by a trained dental hygienist. Poisson regression analyses were carried out to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension with the number of teeth (≥28, 20–27, or 0–19 teeth), quartiles of masticatory performance (Q1: highest [reference] to Q4: lowest), and tooth loss with/without denture use. Hypertension was significantly associated with masticatory performance in participants in Q3 (prevalence ratio = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) and Q4 (prevalence ratio = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.69). There was no association between tooth loss and hypertension. Compared to participants with >28 teeth, the prevalence ratios and 95% CIs of those without dentures and those with 20–27 teeth were 1.33 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.68) and 1.69 (95% CI = 1.21, 2.37), respectively, in those with 0–19 teeth. Masticatory performance was inversely associated with hypertension, and tooth loss without the use of dentures was related to hypertension. Therefore, masticatory function may be important for preventing hypertension among older adults.

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Acknowledgements

The authors greatly appreciate the cooperation of the study participants and the Shimane CoHRE study members for their skilled assistance. This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (Grant numbers 18K11143, 19K11741, and 19H03996).

Funding

This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (grant numbers 18K11143, 19K11741, and 19H03996).

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Correspondence to Takafumi Abe.

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Abe, T., Tominaga, K., Ando, Y. et al. Reduced masticatory performance and not using dentures are associated with hypertension in older adults with tooth loss: the Shimane CoHRE study. Hypertens Res 45, 1553–1562 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41440-022-00976-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41440-022-00976-3

Keywords

  • Health check-up
  • Hypertension
  • Mastication
  • Oral health
  • Tooth loss

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