Tumors constitute a large class of diseases that affect different organs and cell lineages. The molecular characterization of cancers of a given type has revealed an extraordinary heterogeneity in terms of genetic alterations and DNA mutations; heterogeneity that is further highlighted by single-cell DNA sequencing of individual patients. To address these issues, drugs that specifically target genes or altered pathways in cancer cells are continuously developed. Indeed, the genetic fingerprint of individual tumors can direct the modern therapeutic approaches to selectively hit the tumor cells while sparing the healthy ones. In this context, the concept of precision medicine finds a vast field of application. In this review, we will briefly list some classes of target drugs (Bcl-2 family modulators, Tyrosine Kinase modulators, PARP inhibitors, and growth factors inhibitors) and discuss the application of immunotherapy in tumors (T cell-mediated immunotherapy and CAR-T cells) that in recent years has drastically changed the prognostic outlook of aggressive cancers. We will also consider how apoptosis could represent a primary end point in modern cancer therapy and how “classic” chemotherapeutic drugs that induce apoptosis are still utilized in therapeutic schedules that involve the use of target drugs or immunotherapy to optimize the antitumor response.
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This work has been supported by the Medical Research Council, UK; grants from Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca contro il Cancro (AIRC): AIRC 2017 IG20473 (to G.M.) and Fondazione Roma malattie Non trasmissibili Cronico-Degenerative (NCD) Grant (to G.M.).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Raschellà, G., Melino, G. & Gambacurta, A. Cell death in cancer in the era of precision medicine. Genes Immun 20, 529–538 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41435-018-0048-6