Chronic liver injury with any etiology can progress to fibrosis and the end-stage diseases cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progression of liver disease is controlled by a variety of factors, including liver injury, inflammatory cells, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and the gut microbiome. In the current review, we discuss recent data on a large number of cytokines that play important roles in regulating liver injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and regeneration, with a focus on interferons and T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th9, Th17, interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-6 family, and IL-20 family cytokines. Hepatocytes can also produce certain cytokines (such as IL-7, IL-11, and IL-33), and the functions of these cytokines in the liver are briefly summarized. Several cytokines have great therapeutic potential, and some are currently being tested as therapeutic targets in clinical trials for the treatment of liver diseases, which are also described.
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The current review covers a very broad topic, and the authors apologize to the colleagues whose work was not mentioned or cited in this paper because of space constraints and the limited number of references that are allowed. The work from the authors’ laboratories described in this review article was supported by the intramural program of the NIAAA (Bin Gao), U01 AA022614, and R01 DK099205 (Tatiana Kisseleva) and AA011576 and AA017729 (Gyongyi Szabo).
G.S. consults for Allergan, Alnylam, Arrow, Durcect Corporation, Generon, Glympse Bio, Terra Firma, Quest Diagnostics, Pandion Therapeutics, Surrozen, and Zomagen. She has received grants from Gilead, Genfit, Intercept, Novartis, SignaBlok, and Shire. She holds intellectual property rights with Up to Date. The other coauthors declare no competing interests.
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He, Y., Hwang, S., Ahmed, Y.A. et al. Immunopathobiology and therapeutic targets related to cytokines in liver diseases. Cell Mol Immunol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00580-w
- T helper; ALD