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LncRNA NORAD is repressed by the YAP pathway and suppresses lung and breast cancer metastasis by sequestering S100P

Oncogene (2019) | Download Citation


Metastasis is responsible for most cancer mortality, but its molecular mechanism has not been completely understood. In addition to coding genes and miRNAs, the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to tumor metastatic dissemination and the mechanisms controlling their expression are areas of intensive investigation. Here, we show that lncRNA NORAD is downregulated in lung and breast cancers, and that NORAD low expression in these cancer types is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. NORAD is transcriptionally repressed by the Hippo pathway transducer YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex in conjunction with the action of NuRD complex. Functionally, NORAD elicits potent inhibitory effects on migration and invasion of multiple lung and breast cancer cell lines, and repression of NORAD expression participates in the migration- and invasion-stimulatory effects of the YAP pathway. Mechanistically, NORAD exploits its multiple repeated sequences to function as a multivalent platform for binding and sequestering S100P, thereby suppressing S100P-elicited pro-metastatic signaling network. Using cell and mouse models, we show that the S100P decoy function of NORAD suppresses lung and breast cancer migration, invasion, and metastasis. Together, our study identifies NORAD as a novel metastasis suppressor, elucidates its regulatory and functional mechanisms, and highlights its prognostic value.

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We thank Sherry Hsueh-Chi Yen and Pan-Chyr Yang for reagents, Suh-Yuen Liang for TCGA analysis, National RNAi Core Facility for shRNA constructs and CRISPR vectors and constructs, Academia Sinica Animal Core Facility for IVIS analysis, Institute of Biological Chemistry Histopathology Core Facility for tissue processing and histology, Academia Sinica Common Mass Spectrometry Facilities for MS analysis, Human Biobank, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, and Cancer Data Bank of National Cheng Kung University Hospital for patient’s specimens. This work is supported by National Health Research Institute Grant NHRI-EX107-10708BI and intramural fund from Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica.

Author information


  1. Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Boon-Shing Tan
    • , Min-Chi Yang
    • , Shaifali Singh
    •  & Ruey-Hwa Chen
  2. Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Min-Chi Yang
    •  & Ruey-Hwa Chen
  3. Chemical Biology and Molecular Biophysics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Shaifali Singh
    •  & Ruey-Hwa Chen
  4. Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan

    • Shaifali Singh
  5. Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Yu-Chi Chou
  6. Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Hsin-Yi Chen
  7. Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

    • Ming-Yang Wang
  8. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

    • Yi-Ching Wang
  9. Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

    • Yi-Ching Wang


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RHC conceived the project. BST, MCY, and RHC designed experiments. BST, MCY, SS, HYC, and YCC conducted experiments. MYW and YCW provided breast and lung cancer patient specimens, respectively.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ruey-Hwa Chen.

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