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Provided some of the first evidence that adverse early life experiences in humans, in this case rearing by a mother suffering from post-partum depression, are associated with heightened HPA activity years later, and that the HPA axis hyperactivity mediates the association between early risk exposure and later psychiatric symptoms.
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A very good review on the acute and chronic effects of stress during adolescence.
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One of the first papers to show protracted effects of adolescent stress on adulthood stress reactivity in rodents.
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This interesting study addressed endocrine effects on the brain, with a focus on the amygdala and anxiety (rather than on hippocampus and memory). Of note, a single dose of glucocorticoids was sufficient to induce changes in amygdala structure 10 days later, which might be useful to model in animals PTSD.
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This study showed that ∼25% of young adults present hippocampal volumes as small as those of older adults. The presence of small hippocampal volumes in healthy young individuals supports the vulnerability hypothesis.
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This paper presented the first meta-analysis of cortisol findings in PTSD, to elucidate the determinants of hypocortisolism and resolve the inconsistency in findings.
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A crucially important review which documents that the disturbances in the HPA axis that are observed in many adults with depression may be specific to those who experienced trauma or maltreatment in childhood.
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A superb review paper which suggested that trauma at different time points during early development might be associated with different outcomes, depending on the brain structure that was affected at the time of exposure to adversity.
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Gunnar, M. R. & Cheatham, C. L. Brain and behavior interfaces: stress and the developing brain. Infant Ment. Health J. 24, 195–211 (2003).
A superb paper that summarized the effects of stress during development and how this knowledge can be used to develop effective interventions.
LeDoux, J. E. The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996).