Mirror neurons are cells located in the premotor and posterior parietal cortex of the macaque brain. These cells fire when the monkey performs a goal-directed action and when it sees somebody else performing the same action.
Two areas of the macaque brain contain mirror neurons, area F5 in the inferior frontal cortex and area PF/PFG in the inferior parietal cortex. These areas are anatomically interconnected and embedded in parallel frontoparietal networks for sensorimotor integration.
Mirror neurons in monkeys also respond to the sound of actions, and code the intention associated with the observed action. This suggests that the mirror neuron system (MNS) is a key neural system for social cognition.
In humans, mirror neuron areas are located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent ventral premotor cortex, and in the rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule. The human MNS is causally related to imitation, a crucial factor for social interactions and learning.
The human MNS is also concerned with other aspects of social cognition, from understanding the intentions of other people to empathizing with them. Through interactions with the limbic system, the human MNS allows the understanding of emotional states of other people.
Evidence of MNS abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is provided by structural MRI, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (fMRI). fMRI data show that children with ASD have reduced MNS activity during social mirroring and that MNS activity correlates with the severity of disease: the higher the impairment, the lower the MNS activity in ASD.
The discovery of premotor and parietal cells known as mirror neurons in the macaque brain that fire not only when the animal is in action, but also when it observes others carrying out the same actions provides a plausible neurophysiological mechanism for a variety of important social behaviours, from imitation to empathy. Recent data also show that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in humans might be a core deficit in autism, a socially isolating condition. Here, we review the neurophysiology of the mirror neuron system and its role in social cognition and discuss the clinical implications of mirror neuron dysfunction.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Scientific Reports Open Access 03 October 2022
Nature Human Behaviour Open Access 02 June 2022
Scientific Reports Open Access 12 May 2022
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $6.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Hurley, S. & Chater, N. Perspective on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005).
Meltzoff, A. N. & Prinz, W. The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution and Brain Bases (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2002).
Rizzolatti, G & Craighero L. The mirror-neuron system. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 169–192 (2004).
Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T. & Rapson, R. L. Emotional Contagion (Cambridge Univ. Press, Paris, 1994).
Williams, J. H., Whiten, A., Suddendorf, T. & Perrett, D. I. Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 25, 287–295 (2001).
Rizzolatti, G. & Luppino, G. The cortical motor system. Neuron 31, 889–901 (2001).
Rizzolatti, G., Luppino, G. & Matelli, M. The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 106, 283–296 (1998).
Matelli, M., Luppino, G. & Rizzolatti, G. Patterns of cytochrome oxidase activity in the frontal agranular cortex of the macaque monkey. Behav. Brain Res. 18, 125–136 (1985).
Gentilucci, M. et al. Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. I. Somatotopy and the control of proximal movements. Exp. Brain Res. 71, 475–490 (1988).
Graziano, M. S. & Gross, C. G. Spatial maps for the control of movement. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 8, 195–201 (1998).
Graziano, M. S. & Cooke, D. F. Parieto-frontal interactions, personal space, and defensive behavior. Neuropsychologia 44, 845–859 (2006).
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. & Gentilucci, M. Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. II. Visual responses. Behav. Brain Res. 2, 147–163 (1981).
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. & Gentilucci, M. Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. I. Somatosensory responses. Behav. Brain Res. 2, 125–146 (1981).
Graziano, M. S., Taylor, C. S., Moore, T. & Cooke, D. F. The cortical control of movement revisited. Neuron 36, 349–362 (2002).
Sakata, H., Taira, M., Kusunoki, M., Murata, A. & Tanaka, Y. The TINS Lecture. The parietal association cortex in depth perception and visual control of hand action. Trends Neurosci. 20, 350–357 (1997).
Jeannerod, M., Arbib, M. A., Rizzolatti, G. & Sakata, H. Grasping objects: the cortical mechanisms of visuomotor transformation. Trends Neurosci. 18, 314–320 (1995).
Raos, V., Umiltá, M. A., Murata, A., Fogassi, L. & Gallese, V. Functional properties of grasping-related neurons in the ventral premotor area F5 of the macaque monkey. J. Neurophysiol. 95, 709–729 (2006).
Fogassi, L. & Luppino, G. Motor functions of the parietal lobe. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15, 626–631 (2005).
Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L. & Rizzolatti, G. Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain 119, 593–609 (1996). The first full report on mirror neurons in monkeys studied with single-cell recordings. It provides a detailed description of the basic properties of mirror neurons in area F5.
Ferrari, P. F. et al. Neonatal imitation in rhesus macaques. PLoS Biol. 4, e302 (2006). This behavioural study shows that infant monkeys can imitate facial and hand gestures, thereby demonstrating that imitative capacities are neither uniquely human nor restricted to great apes in other primates.
Paukner, A., Anderson, J. R., Borelli, E., Visalberghi, E. & Ferrari, P. F. Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) recognize when they are being imitated. Biol. Lett. 1, 219–222 (2005).
di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V. & Rizzolatti, G. Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study. Exp. Brain Res. 91, 176–180 (1992).
Umiltà, M. A. et al. I know what you are doing. A neurophysiological study. Neuron 31, 155–165 (2001).
Kohler, E. et al. Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science 297, 846–848 (2002).
Keysers, C. et al. Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition. Exp. Brain Res. 153, 628–636 (2003).
Fogassi, L. et al. Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding. Science 308, 662–667 (2005). This single-cell recording study of area PF of the macaque shows that mirror neurons do not simply code the observed action, but rather the intention associated with it, thereby predicting probable future actions.
Ferrari, P. F., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G. & Fogassi, L. Mirror neurons responding to the observation of ingestive and communicative mouth actions in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 1703–1714 (2003).
Ferrari, P. F., Rozzi, S. & Fogassi, L. Mirror neurons responding to observation of actions made with tools in monkey ventral premotor cortex. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 212–226 (2005).
Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Pavesi, G. & Rizzolatti, G. Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study. J. Neurophysiol. 73, 2608–2611 (1995).
Rizzolatti, G. et al. Localization of grasp representations in humans by PET: 1. Observation versus execution. Exp. Brain Res. 111, 246–252 (1996).
Logothetis, N. K. & Wandell, B. A. Interpreting the BOLD signal. Annu, Rev. Physiol. 66, 735–769 (2004).
Mukamel, R. et al. Coupling between neuronal firing, field potentials, and fMRI in human auditory cortex. Science 309, 951–954 (2005).
Iacoboni, M. et al. Cortical mechanisms of human imitation. Science 286, 2526–2528 (1999). This fMRI study of imitation of hand actions shows that the human inferior frontal cortex (Broca's area) and rostral posterior parietal cortex have mirror neuron properties, showing activation during observation and execution of action, and increased activation during imitation.
Heiser, M., Iacoboni, M., Maeda, F., Marcus, J. & Mazziotta, J. C. The essential role of Broca's area in imitation. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 1123–1128 (2003). In this repetitive TMS study, a transient lesion induced in Broca's area caused imitative deficits. This study shows that the activation of Broca's area during imaging studies of imitation is not epiphenomenal, but rather causally related to imitation.
Wapner, S. & Cirillo, L. Imitation of a model's hand movement: age changes in transposition of left-right relations. Child Dev. 39, 887–894 (1968).
Koski, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M. C., Woods, R. P. & Mazziotta, J. C. Modulation of cortical activity during different imitative behaviors. J. Neurophysiol. 89, 460–471 (2003).
Bekkering, H., Wohlschlager, A. & Gattis, M. Imitation of gestures in children is goal-directed. Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 53, 153–164 (2000).
Koski, L. et al. Modulation of motor and premotor activity during imitation of target-directed actions. Cereb. Cortex 12, 847–855 (2002).
Chaminade, T., Meltzoff, A. N. & Decety, J. Does the end justify the means? A PET exploration of the mechanisms involved in human imitation. Neuroimage 15, 318–328 (2002).
Chaminade, T., Meltzoff, A. N. & Decety, J. An fMRI study of imitation: action representation and body schema. Neuropsychologia 43, 115–127 (2005).
Iacoboni M. Neural mechanisms of imitation. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15, 632–637 (2005).
Iacoboni, M. et al. Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 13995–13999 (2001).
Catani, M., Jones, D. K. & Ffytche, D. H. Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Ann. Neurol. 57, 8–16 (2005).
Baird, A. A., Colvin, M. K., Vanhorn, J. D., Inati, S. & Gazzaniga, M. S. Functional connectivity: integrating behavioral, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 687–693 (2005).
Buccino, G. et al. Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42, 323–334 (2004).
Molnar-Szakacs, I., Iacoboni, M., Koski, L. & Mazziotta, J. C. Functional segregation within pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus: evidence from fMRI studies of imitation and action observation. Cereb. Cortex 15, 986–994 (2005).
Wolpert, D. M., Ghahramani, Z. & Flanagan, J. R. Perspectives and problems in motor learning. Trends Cogn. Sci. 5, 487–494 (2001).
Carr, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M. C., Mazziotta, J. C. & Lenzi, G. L. Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: a relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 5497–5502 (2003).
Chartrand, T. L. & Bargh, J. A. The chameleon effect: the perception-behavior link and social interaction. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 76, 893–910 (1999).
Augustine, J. R. Circuitry and functional aspects of the insular lobes in primates including humans. Brain Res. Rev. 2, 229–294 (1996).
Avenanti, A., Bueti, D., Galati, G. & Aglioti, S. M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation highlights the sensorimotor side of empathy for pain. Nature Neurosci. 8, 955–960 (2005).
Wicker, B. et al. Both of us disgusted in My insula: the common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron 40, 655–664 (2003).
Leslie, K. R., Johnson-Frey, S. H. & Grafton, S. T. Functional imaging of face and hand imitation: towards a motor theory of empathy. Neuroimage 21, 601–607 (2004).
Gallese, V. & Goldman, A. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cogn. Sci. 2, 493–501 (1998).
Iacoboni, M. et al. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol. 3, e79 (2005). This fMRI study shows that the right inferior frontal mirror neuron area responds differently to the sight of the same grasping action embedded in different contexts suggesting different intentions. This demonstrates that the MNS codes the intention of the observed action.
Iacoboni, M. et al. Watching social interactions produces dorsomedial prefrontal and medial parietal BOLD fMRI signal increases compared to a resting baseline. Neuroimage 21, 1167–1173 (2004).
Uddin, L. Q., Kaplan, J. T., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Zaidel, E. & Iacoboni, M. Self-face recognition activates a frontoparietal 'mirror' network in the right hemisphere: an event-related fMRI study. Neuroimage 25, 926–935 (2005).
Uddin, L., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Zaidel, E. & Iacoboni, M. rTMS to the right inferior parietal area disrupts self–other discrimination. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 1, 65–71 (2006).
Urgesi, C., Moro, V., Candidi, M. & Aglioti, S. M. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system. J. Neurosci. 26, 7942–7949 (2006).
Asendorpf, J. B. & Baudonniere, P.-M. Self-awareness and other-awareness: mirror self-recognition and synchronic imitation among unfamiliar peers. Dev. Psychol. 29, 88–95 (1993).
Calvo-Merino, B., Glaser, D. E., Grèzes, J., Passingham, R. E. & Haggard, P. Action observation and acquired motor skills: an fMRI study with expert dancers. Cereb. Cortex 15, 1243–1249 (2005).
Buccino, G. et al. Neural circuits involved in the recognition of actions performed by nonconspecifics: an fMRI study. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16, 114–126 (2004).
Falck-Ytter, T., Gredebäck, G. & von Hofsten, C. Infants predict other people's action goals. Nature Neurosci. 9, 878–879 (2006).
Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M. K. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198, 74–78 (1977).
Myowa-Yamakoshi, M., Tomonaga, M., Tanaka, M. & Matsuzawa, T. Imitation in neonatal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Dev. Sci. 7, 437–442 (2004).
Lepage, J. F. & Théoret, H. EEG evidence for the presence of an action observation-execution matching system in children. Eur. J. Neurosci. 23, 2505–2510 (2006).
Hari, R. et al. Activation of human primary motor cortex during action observation: a neuromagnetic study. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15061–15065 (1998).
Shimada, S. & Hiraki, K. Infant's brain responses to live and televised action. Neuroimage 32, 930–939 (2006).
Pfeifer, H., Iacoboni, M., Mazziotta, C. & Dapretto, M. Mirror neuron system activity in children and its relation to empathy and interpersonal competence, in Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 660.24 (2005).
Gallese, V., Keysers, C. & Rizzolatti, G. A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends. Cogn. Sci. 8, 396–403 (2004).
Gazzola, V., Aziz-Zadeh, L. & Keysers, C. Empathy and the somatotopic auditory mirror system in humans. Curr. Biol. 16, 1824–1829 (2006).
Rogers, S. J. & Pennington, B. F. A theoretical approach to the deficits in infantile autism. Dev. Psychol. 3, 137–162 (1991).
Altschuler, E. L. et al. Mu wave blocking by observation of movement and its possible use to study the theory of other minds. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 68.1 (2000).
Gallese, V. Intentional attunement: a neurophysiological perspective on social cognition and its disruption in autism. Brain Res. 1079, 15–24 (2006).
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J. & Tager-Flusberg, H. Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cereb. Cortex 16, 1276–1282 (2006).
Nishitani, N., Avikainen, S. & Hari, R. Abnormal imitation-related cortical activation sequences in Asperger's syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 55, 558–562 (2004). This MEG study shows that the temporal progression of activation in MNS areas is delayed in patients with Asperger's syndrome, suggesting a deficit of connectivity between these areas.
Villalobos, M. E., Mizuno, A., Dahl, B. C., Kemmotsu, N. & Müller, R. A. Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism. Neuroimage 25, 916–925 (2005).
Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., Kana, R. K. & Minshew, N. J. Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: evidence from an fMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry. Cereb. Cortex 13 June 2006 (doi: 10.1093/cercor/bh1006).
Oberman, L. M. et al. EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 24, 190–198 (2005).
Théoret, H. et al. Impaired motor facilitation during action observation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Curr. Biol. 15, R84–R85 (2005).
Williams, J. H. et al. Neural mechanisms of imitation and 'mirror neuron' functioning in autistic spectrum disorder. Neuropsychologia 44, 610–621 (2006).
Dapretto, M. et al. Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neurosci. 9, 28–30 (2006). This fMRI study demonstrates that children with ASD have reduced MNS activity during social mirroring compared with typically developing children. The MNS activity in children with ASD inversely correlates with the severity of disease: the higher the severity of disease, the lower the MNS activity.
Escalona, A., Field, T., Nadel, J. & Lundy, B. Brief report: imitation effects on children with autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 32, 141–144 (2002).
Field, T., Sanders, C. & Nadel, J. Children with autism display more social behaviors after repeated imitation sessions. Autism 5, 317–323 (2001).
Arbib, M. A., Billard, A., Iacoboni, M. & Oztop, E. Synthetic brain imaging: grasping, mirror neurons and imitation. Neural Netw. 13, 975–997 (2000).
Luppino, G., Matelli, M., Camarda, R. & Rizzolatti, G. Corticocortical connections of area F3 (SMA-proper) and area F6 (pre-SMA) in the macaque monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 338, 114–140 (1993).
Iacoboni, M. Failure to deactivate in autism: the co-constitution of self and other. Trends Cogn. Sci. 10, 431–433 (2006).
Gusnard, D. A. & Raichle, M. E. Searching for a baseline: functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 2, 685–694 (2001).
Heyes, C. Causes and consequences of imitation. Trends Cogn. Sci. 5, 253–261 (2001).
Whiten, A. Primate culture and social learning. Cogn. Sci. 24, 477–508 (2000).
Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D. J. Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives From Autism (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1993).
Prinz, W. in Perspectives on Imitation: from Neuroscience to Social Science (eds Hurley, S. & Chater, N.) 141–156 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005).
Rizzolatti, G. & Arbib, M. A. Language within our grasp. Trends Neurosci. 21, 188–194 (1998).
Arbib, M. A. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 105–124; discussion 125–167 (2005).
Corballis, M. C. From mouth to hand: gesture, speech, and the evolution of right-handedness. Behav. Brain Sci. 26, 199–208; discussion 208–260 (2003).
Liberman, A. M. & Mattingly, I. G. The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition 21, 1–36 (1985).
Fadiga, L., Craighero, L., Buccino, G. & Rizzolatti, G. Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: a TMS study. Eur. J. Neurosci. 15, 399–402 (2002).
Watkins, K. & Paus, T. Modulation of motor excitability during speech perception: the role of Broca's area. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16, 978–987 (2004).
Watkins, K. E., Strafella, A. P. & Paus, T. Seeing and hearing speech excites the motor system involved in speech production. Neuropsychologia 41, 989–994 (2003).
Wilson, S. M. & Iacoboni, M. Neural responses to non-native phonemes varying in producibility: evidence for the sensorimotor nature of speech perception. Neuroimage 33, 316–325 (2006).
Wilson, S. M., Saygin, A. P., Sereno, M. I. & Iacoboni, M. Listening to speech activates motor areas involved in speech production. Nature Neurosci. 7, 701–702 (2004).
Barsalou, L. W. Perceptual symbol systems. Behav. Brain Sci. 22, 577–609; discussion 610–660 (1999).
Glenberg, A. M. & Kaschak, M. P. Grounding language in action. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9, 558–565 (2002).
Gallese, V. & Lakoff, G. The brain's concepts: The role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cogn. Neuropsychol. 22, 455–479 (2005).
Meister, I. G. et al. Motor cortex hand area and speech: implications for the development of language. Neuropsychologia 41, 401–406 (2003).
Tettamanti, M. et al. Listening to action-related sentences activates fronto-parietal motor circuits. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 273–281 (2005).
Hauk, O., Johnsrude, I. & Pulvermüller, F. Somatotopic representation of action words in human motor and premotor cortex. Neuron 41, 301–307 (2004).
Aziz-Zadeh, L., Wilson, S. M., Rizzolatti, G. & Iacoboni, M. Congruent embodied representations for visually presented actions and linguistic phrases describing actions. Curr. Biol. 16, 1818–1823 (2006).
Aziz-Zadeh, L., Koski, L., Zaidel, E., Mazziotta, J. & Iacoboni, M. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system. J. Neurosci. 26, 2964–2970 (2006).
Aziz-Zadeh, L., Maeda, F., Zaidel, E., Mazziotta, J. & Iacoboni, M. Lateralization in motor facilitation during action observation: a TMS study. Exp. Brain Res. 144, 127–131 (2002).
Aziz-Zadeh, L., Iacoboni, M., Zaidel, E., Wilson, S. & Mazziotta, J. Left hemisphere motor facilitation in response to manual action sounds. Eur. J. Neurosci. 19, 2609–2612 (2004).
Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N. & Fitch, W. T. The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298, 1569–1579 (2002).
Allison, T., Puce, A. & McCarthy, G. Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4, 267–278 (2000).
Martin, J. H. Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas 2nd edn (Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Connecticut, 1996).
Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L. & Gallese, V. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 2, 661–670 (2001).
The authors' work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- Theory of mind
Awareness that other people have beliefs and desires as we do, but different from our own, and that these beliefs and desires can explain the behaviour of others.
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
(TMS). TMS involves creating a strong localized transient magnetic field that induces current flow in underlying neural tissue, causing a temporary disruption of activity in small regions of the brain.
- Positron emission tomography
(PET). In vivo imaging technique used for diagnostic examination that involves the acquisition of physiological images based on the detection of positrons, which are emitted from a radioactive substance previously administered to the patient.
- Diffusion tensor imaging
A technique developed in the mid-1990s, based on MRI in which diffusion constants of water molecules are measured along many (>6) orientations and diffusion anisotropy is characterized. It is used to visualize the location, orientation and anisotropy of the brain's white matter tracts, and is sensitive to directional parameters of water diffusion in the brain.
- Mu rhythm
Ongoing spontaneous electrical activity generated by the primary sensorimotor cortices, consisting of prominent frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz.
- Near infrared spectroscopy
(NIRS). Recently developed non-invasive neuroimaging technique based on light in the near infrared, highly applicable to the study of the infant brain in naturalistic settings.
(MEG). A non-invasive technique that allows the detection of the changing magnetic fields that are associated with brain activity on the timescale of milliseconds.
About this article
Cite this article
Iacoboni, M., Dapretto, M. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nat Rev Neurosci 7, 942–951 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2024
This article is cited by
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science (2023)
Nature Human Behaviour (2022)
Scientific Reports (2022)
Scientific Reports (2022)
Aberrant brain network and eye gaze patterns during natural social interaction predict multi-domain social-cognitive behaviors in girls with fragile X syndrome
Molecular Psychiatry (2022)