Fauci, A. S. & Morens, D. M.
The perpetual challenge of infectious diseases. N. Engl. J. Med.
366, 454–461 (2012).
Giuliano, A. R.
et al. Efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against HPV Infection and disease in males. N. Engl. J. Med.
364, 401–411 (2011).
et al. Prevention of persistent human papillomavirus infection by an HPV16/18 vaccine: a community-based randomized clinical trial in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Cancer Discov.
1, 408–419 (2011).
Kjaer, S. K.
et al. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)
2, 868–878 (2009).
et al. Overall efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against grade 3 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol.
13, 89–99 (2011). End-of-study analyses of the Cervarix Phase III trial in young women.
et al. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women. J. Natl Cancer Inst.
102, 325–339 (2010). Pooled end-of-study analyses of the Gardasil Phase III trials in young women.
Palefsky, J. M.
et al. HPV vaccine against anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. N. Engl. J. Med.
365, 1576–1585 (2011). The first study to demonstrate vaccine-mediated prevention of anal HPV infection and associated hyperproliferative diseases.
Bernard, H. U.
et al. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology
401, 70–79 (2010).
et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N. Engl. J. Med.
348, 518–527 (2003).
de Martel, C.
et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis. Lancet Oncol.
13, 607–615 (2012).
Parkin, D. M.
The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int. J. Cancer
118, 3030–3044 (2006).
Peto, J., Gilham, C., Fletcher, O. & Matthews, F. E.
The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Lancet
364, 249–256 (2004).
et al. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers — United States, 2004–2008. Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep.
61, 258–261 (2012).
Garland, S. M.
et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J. Infect. Dis.
199, 805–814 (2009).
et al. The prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in nonmelanoma skin cancers of nonimmunosuppressed individuals identifies high-risk genital types as possible risk factors. Cancer Res.
63, 7515–7519 (2003).
Dürst, M., Gissmann, L., Ikenberg, H. & zur Hausen, H.
A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
80, 3812–3815 (1983).
McLaughlin-Drubin, M. E. & Munger, K.
Oncogenic activities of human papillomaviruses. Virus Res.
143, 195–208 (2009).
Bosch, F. X., Lorincz, A., Munoz, N., Meijer, C. J. & Shah, K. V.
The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J. Clin. Pathol.
55, 244–265 (2002).
Bosch, F. X.
et al. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections and type-specific implications in cervical neoplasia. Vaccine
26 (Suppl. 10), K1–K16 (2008).
Walboomers, J. M.
et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J. Pathol.
189, 12–19 (1999).
Hagensee, M. E., Yaegashi, N. & Galloway, D. A.
Self-assembly of human papillomavirus type 1 capsids by expression of the L1 protein alone or by coexpression of the L1 and L2 capsid proteins. J. Virol.
67, 315–322 (1993).
Kirnbauer, R., Booy, F., Cheng, N., Lowy, D. R. & Schiller, J. T.
Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
89, 12180–12184 (1992). The initial report of self-assembly of L1 VLPs and their induction of high-titre neutralizing antibodies.
Rose, R. C., Bonnez, W., Reichman, R. C. & Garcea, R. L.
Expression of human papillomavirus type 11 L1 protein in insect cells: in vivo and in vitro assembly of viruslike particles. J. Virol.
67, 1936–1944 (1993).
Einstein, M. H.
et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum. Vaccin.
7, 1359–1373 (2011).
Joura, E. A.
et al. HPV antibody levels and clinical efficacy following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Vaccine
26, 6844–6851 (2008).
et al. Sustained immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: up to 8.4 years of follow-up. Hum. Vaccin. Immunother.
8, 390–397 (2012).
Kreimer, A. R.
et al. Proof-of-principle evaluation of the efficacy of fewer than three doses of a bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine. J. Natl Cancer Inst.
103, 1444–1451 (2011).
Kreimer, A. R.
et al. Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV 16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Lancet Oncol.
12, 862–870 (2011).
Brown, D. R.
et al. The impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV; types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine on infection and disease due to oncogenic nonvaccine HPV types in generally HPV-naive women aged 16–26 years. J. Infect. Dis.
199, 926–935 (2009).
Wheeler, C. M.
et al. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol.
13, 100–110 (2011).
The FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N. Engl. J. Med.
356, 1915–1927 (2007).
et al. Effect of human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 viruslike particle vaccine among young women with preexisting infection: a randomized trial. JAMA 298, 743–753 (2007).
Joura, E. A.
et al. Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ
344, e1401 (2012).
Brotherton, J. M.
et al. Early effect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Lancet
377, 2085–2092 (2011). The first indication of the effectiveness of an HPV vaccine against cervical dysplasia in a general vaccination programme.
et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and trends in genital warts in Australia: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Lancet Infect. Dis.
11, 39–44 (2011).
Roden, R. B. S.
et al. In vitro generation and type-specific neutralization of a human papillomavirus type 16 virion pseudotype. J. Virol.
70, 5875–5883 (1996).
et al. Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 6.4 years. Lancet
374, 1975–1985 (2009).
Pastrana, D. V.
et al. Reactivity of human sera in a sensitive, high-throughput pseudovirus-based papillomavirus neutralization assay for HPV16 and HPV18. Virology
321, 205–216 (2004).
et al. Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV infection. J. Virol.
69, 3959–3963 (1995).
Suzich, J. A.
et al. Systemic immunization with papillomavirus L1 protein completely prevents the development of viral mucosal papillomas. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
92, 11553–11557 (1995).
Roberts, J. N.
et al. Genital transmission of HPV in a mouse model is potentiated by nonoxynol-9 and inhibited by carrageenan. Nature Med.
13, 857–861 (2007).
Longet, S., Schiller, J. T., Bobst, M., Jichlinski, P. & Nardelli-Haefliger, D. A.
Murine genital-challenge model is a sensitive measure of protective antibodies against human papillomavirus infection. J. Virol.
85, 13253–13259 (2011).
Kemp, T. J.
et al. HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccine induces cross-neutralizing antibodies that may mediate cross-protection. Vaccine
29, 2011–2014 (2011).
Giannini, S. L.
et al. Enhanced humoral and memory B cellular immunity using HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccine formulated with the MPL/aluminium salt combination (AS04) compared to aluminium salt only. Vaccine
24, 5937–5949 (2006).
Tobery, T. W.
et al. Effect of vaccine delivery system on the induction of HPV16L1-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in immunized rhesus macaques. Vaccine
21, 1539–1547 (2003).
De Bruijn, M. L. H.
et al. L1-specific protection from tumor challenge elicited by HPV16 virus-like particles. Virology
250, 371–376 (1998).
The papillomavirus life cycle. J. Clin. Virol.
32 (Suppl. 1), S7–S15 (2005).
Block, S. L.
et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in male and female adolescents and young adult women. Pediatrics
118, 2135–2145 (2006).
et al. Immunization of early adolescent females with human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine containing AS04 adjuvant. J. Adolesc. Health
40, 564–571 (2007).
et al. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy boys aged 10–18 years. J. Adolesc. Health
44, 33–40 (2009).
Mestecky, J., Raska, M., Novak, J., Alexander, R. C. & Moldoveanu, Z.
Antibody-mediated protection and the mucosal immune system of the genital tract: relevance to vaccine design. J. Reprod. Immunol.
85, 81–85 (2010).
et al. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
108, 4388–4393 (2011).
et al. Specific antibody levels at the cervix during the menstrual cycle of women vaccinated with human papillomavirus 16 virus-like particles. J. Natl Cancer Inst.
95, 1128–1137 (2003).
Trus, B. L.
et al. Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three dimensional reconstruction to 9Å resolution. Nature Struct. Biol.
4, 413–420 (1997).
Bachmann, M. F.
et al. The influence of antigen organization on B cell responsiveness. Science
262, 1448–1451 (1993).
Jennings, G. T. & Bachmann, M. F.
The coming of age of virus-like particle vaccines. Biol. Chem.
389, 521–536 (2008).
Chackerian, B., Lenz, P., Lowy, D. R. & Schiller, J. T.
Determinants of autoantibody induction by conjugated papillomavirus virus-like particles. J. Immunol.
169, 6120–6126 (2002).
Einstein, M. H.
et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical cancer vaccines in healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum. Vaccin.
5, 705–719 (2009).
Harro, C. D.
et al. Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. J. Natl Cancer Inst.
93, 284–292 (2001).
Amanna, I. J. & Slifka, M. K.
Mechanisms that determine plasma cell lifespan and the duration of humoral immunity. Immunol. Rev.
236, 125–138 (2010).
Amanna, I. J., Carlson, N. E. & Slifka, M. K.
Duration of humoral immunity to common viral and vaccine antigens. N. Engl. J. Med.
357, 1903–1915 (2007). A study which provides compelling evidence that viral vaccines can induce durable antibody responses to virion surface elements.
Lenz, P., Lowy, D. R. & Schiller, J. T.
Papillomavirus virus-like particles induce cytokines characteristic of innate immune responses in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol.
35, 1548–1556 (2005).
et al. Interaction of papillomavirus virus-like particles with human myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Clin. Immunol.
106, 231–237 (2003).
Lin, Y.-L., Borenstein, L. A., Selvakumar, R., Ahmed, R. & Wettstein, F. O.
Effective vaccination against papilloma development by immunization with L1 or L2 structural protein of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. Virology
187, 612–619 (1992).
Carter, J. J.
et al. Identification of human papillomavirus type 16 L1 surface loops required for neutralization by human sera. J. Virol.
80, 4664–4672 (2006).
Pastrana, D. V., Vass, W. C., Lowy, D. R. & Schiller, J. T.
NHPV16 VLP vaccine induces human antibodies that neutralize divergent variants of HPV16. Virology
279, 361–369 (2001).
Bernard, H. U., Calleja-Macias, I. E. & Dunn, S. T.
Genome variation of human papillomavirus types: phylogenetic and medical implications. Int. J. Cancer
118, 1071–1076 (2006).
et al. Molecular variants of human papillomaviru-16 from four continents suggest pandemic spread of the virus and its coevolution with humankind. J. Virol.
66, 2057–2066 (1992).
Kines, R. C., Thompson, C. D., Lowy, D. R., Schiller, J. T. & Day, P. M.
The initial steps leading to papillomavirus infection occur on the basement membrane prior to cell surface binding. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
106, 20458–20463 (2009). This article describes the unique mechanism of HPV infection of cervicovaginal tissue in vivo.
Day, P. M.
et al. In vivo mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against HPV infection. Cell Host Microbe
8, 260–270 (2010). This report documents the mechanisms by which VLP antibodies can prevent cervicovaginal HPV infection.
Immunobiology of HPV and HPV vaccines. Gynecol. Oncol.
109, S15–S21 (2008).
Carter, J. J.
et al. Comparison of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 6 capsid antibody responses following incident infection. J. Infect. Dis.
181, 1911–1919 (2000).
Liaw, K. L.
et al. A prospective study of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction and its association with acquisition and persistence of other HPV types. J. Infect. Dis.
183, 8–15 (2001).
Plummer, M., Schiffman, M., Castle, P. E., Maucort-Boulch, D. & Wheeler, C. M.
A 2-year prospective study of human papillomavirus persistence among women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. J. Infect. Dis.
195, 1582–1589 (2007).
Chaturvedi, A. K.
et al. Human papillomavirus infection with multiple types: pattern of coinfection and risk of cervical disease. J. Infect. Dis.
203, 910–920 (2011).
Kjaer, S. K., Frederiksen, K., Munk, C. & Iftner, T.
Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence. J. Natl Cancer Inst.
102, 1478–1488 (2010).
Girard, M. P. & Plotkin, S. A.
HIV vaccine development at the turn of the 21st century. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS
7, 4–9 (2012).
Johnston, C., Koelle, D. M. & Wald, A.
HSV-2: in pursuit of a vaccine. J. Clin. Invest.
121, 4600–4609 (2011).
Buonaguro, L., Tagliamonte, M., Tornesello, M. L. & Buonaguro, F. M.
Developments in virus-like particle-based vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer. Expert Rev. Vaccines
10, 1569–1583 (2011).
et al. Distribution and three-dimensional structure of AIDS virus envelope spikes. Nature
441, 847–852 (2006).
et al. Immunization with HIV-1 gp41 subunit virosomes induces mucosal antibodies protecting nonhuman primates against vaginal SHIV challenges. Immunity
34, 269–280 (2011).
Kaushic, C., Nazli, A., Ferreira, V. H. & Kafka, J. K.
Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1. Methods
55, 114–121 (2011).
Hladik, F. & Hope, T. J.
HIV infection of the genital mucosa in women. Curr. HIV/AIDS Rep.
6, 20–28 (2009).
Pantophlet, R., Wang, M., Aguilar-Sino, R. O. & Burton, D. R.
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope spike of primary viruses can suppress antibody access to variable regions. J. Virol.
83, 1649–1659 (2009).
et al. Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1. Nature
422, 307–312 (2003).
Mascola, J. R. & Montefiori, D. C.
The role of antibodies in HIV vaccines. Annu. Rev. Immunol.
28, 413–444 (2010).
Mascola, J. R.
et al. Protection of macaques against vaginal transmission of a pathogenic HIV-1/SIV chimeric virus by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies. Nature Med.
6, 207–210 (2000).
Powers, K. A., Poole, C., Pettifor, A. E. & Cohen, M. S.
Rethinking the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis.
8, 553–563 (2008).
Keele, B. F.
et al. Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
105, 7552–7557 (2008).
Burchell, A. N., Coutlee, F., Tellier, P. P., Hanley, J. & Franco, E. L.
Genital transmission of human papillomavirus in recently formed heterosexual couples. J. Infect. Dis.
204, 1723–1729 (2011).
et al. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV-1 infection in Thailand. N. Engl. J. Med.
361, 2209–2220 (2009).
Tomaras, G. D. & Haynes, B. F.
Strategies for eliciting HIV-1 inhibitory antibodies. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS
5, 421–427 (2010).
Lai, S. K.
et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is trapped by acidic but not by neutralized human cervicovaginal mucus. J. Virol.
83, 11196–11200 (2009).
et al. Secretory component: a new role in secretory IgA-mediated immune exclusion in vivo. Immunity
17, 107–115 (2002).
Bachmann, M. F. & Zinkernagel, R. M.
The influence of virus structure on antibody responses and virus serotype formation. Immun. Today
17, 553–558 (1996).
Awasthi, S., Lubinski, J. M. & Friedman, H. M.
Immunization with HSV-1 glycoprotein C prevents immune evasion from complement and enhances the efficacy of an HSV-1 glycoprotein D subunit vaccine. Vaccine
27, 6845–6853 (2009).
Hook, L. M., Huang, J., Jiang, M., Hodinka, R. & Friedman, H. M.
Blocking antibody access to neutralizing domains on glycoproteins involved in entry as a novel mechanism of immune evasion by herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins C and E. J. Virol.
82, 6935–6941 (2008).
Karasneh, G. A. & Shukla, D.
Herpes simplex virus infects most cell types in vitro: clues to its success. Virol. J.
8, 481 (2011).
et al. Recombinant glycoprotein vaccine for the prevention of genital HSV-2 infection: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA
282, 331–340 (1999).
Stanberry, L. R.
et al. Glycoprotein-D-adjuvant vaccine to prevent genital herpes. N. Engl. J. Med.
347, 1652–1661 (2002).
Belshe, R. B.
et al. Efficacy results of a trial of a herpes simplex vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med.
366, 34–43 (2012).
Buck, C. B., Pastrana, D. V., Lowy, D. R. & Schiller, J. T.
Efficient intracellular assembly of papillomaviral vectors. J. Virol.
78, 751–757 (2004).