Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Long-term effects of adolescent obesity: time to act

Abstract

Obesity in adolescence will probably have major implications not only for the affected adolescents but also for society. Those who have obesity during adolescence usually have obesity into adulthood, which causes many medical and psychological issues that can result in premature death. Furthermore, obesity in adolescents is associated with a range of social problems, including difficulties securing an apprenticeship or a job or finding a partner. Adolescents with obesity are also at increased risk of having children with obesity later in life. All these consequences lead to high costs for the health-care system. Although efficient treatment options are available that have been proven in randomized controlled trials, such as lifestyle interventions for adolescents with obesity and bariatric surgery for adolescents with severe obesity, these interventions frequently fail in clinical practice as treatment adherence is low in adolescents and most adolescents with obesity do not seek medical care. Therefore, improving treatment adherence and identifying treatment barriers are necessary.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Ells, L. J. et al. Prevalence of severe childhood obesity in England: 2006–2013. Arch. Dis. Child 100, 631–636 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    van Jaarsveld, C. H. & Gulliford, M. C. Childhood obesity trends from primary care electronic health records in England between 1994 and 2013: population-based cohort study. Arch. Dis. Child 100, 214–219 (2015).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. N. Engl. J. Med. 377, 13–27 (2017).

  4. 4

    I'Allemand, D. et al. Cardiovascular risk in 26,008 European overweight children as established by a multicenter database. Obesity 16, 1672–1679 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Rankin, J. et al. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention. Adolesc. Health Med. Ther. 7, 125–146 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Whitaker, R. C., Wright, J. A., Pepe, M. S., Seidel, K. D. & Dietz, W. H. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N. Engl. J. Med. 337, 869–873 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Twig, G. et al. Body-mass index in 2.3 million adolescents and cardiovascular death in adulthood. N. Engl. J. Med. 374, 2430–2440 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Baker, J. L., Olsen, L. W. & Sorensen, T. I. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 2329–2337 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Biro, F. M. & Wien, M. Childhood obesity and adult morbidities. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 1499S–1505S (2010).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Carolan-Olah, M., Duarte-Gardea, M. & Lechuga, J. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease. J. Clin. Nurs. 24, 3716–3729 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Chang, L. & Neu, J. Early factors leading to later obesity: interactions of the microbiome, epigenome, and nutrition. Curr. Probl. Pediatr. Adolesc. Health Care 45, 134–142 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Katzmarzyk, P. T. et al. An evolving scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. Int. J. Obes. 38, 887–905 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Roth, C. L. & Sathyanarayana, S. Mechanisms affecting neuroendocrine and epigenetic regulation of body weight and onset of puberty: potential implications in the child born small for gestational age (SGA). Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 13, 129–140 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Muhlig, Y., Wabitsch, M., Moss, A. & Hebebrand, J. Weight loss in children and adolescents. Dtsch. Arztebl Int. 111, 818–824 (2014).

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Reinehr, T. et al. Two-year follow-up in 21,784 overweight children and adolescents with lifestyle intervention. Obesity 17, 1196–1199 (2009).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Inge, T. H. et al. Perioperative outcomes of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery: the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study. JAMA Pediatr. 168, 47–53 (2014).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Beamish, A. J. & Reinehr, T. Should bariatric surgery be performed in adolescents? Eur. J. Endocrinol. 176, D1–D15 (2017).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Ogden, C. L. et al. Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014. JAMA 315, 2292–2299 (2016).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    World Health Organisation. Obesity and overweight factsheet no 311. WHO http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ (2017).

  20. 20

    Lobstein, T. & Frelut, M. L. Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe. Obes. Rev. 4, 195–200 (2003).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Skinner, A. C. & Skelton, J. A. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999–2012. JAMA Pediatr. 168, 561–566 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Reaven, G. M. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia: role in hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. Am. Heart J. 121, 1283–1288 (1991).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Zimmet, P. et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents — an IDF consensus report. Pediatr. Diabetes 8, 299–306 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Alberti, K. G., Zimmet, P. & Shaw, J. Metabolic syndrome — a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet. Med. 23, 469–480 (2006).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Reinehr, T., Wunsch, R., Putter, C. & Scherag, A. Relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. J. Pediatr. 163, 327–332 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Hudson, L. D., Kinra, S., Wong, I. & Viner, R. M. Arterial stiffening, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans in a community sample of adolescents with obesity. Int. J. Obes. 41, 1454–1456 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Hurwitz, E. N. & Netterstrom, B. The intima media thickness and coronary risk factors. Int. Angiol. 20, 118–125 (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Mayer-Davis, E. J. et al. Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002–2012. N. Engl. J. Med. 376, 1419–1429 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Schober, E. et al. Diabetes mellitus type 2 in childhood and adolescence in Germany and parts of Austria. Eur. J. Pediatr. 164, 705–707 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Rotteveel, J., Belksma, E. J., Renders, C. M., Hirasing, R. A. & Delemarre-Van de Waal, H. A. Type 2 diabetes in children in the Netherlands: the need for diagnostic protocols. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 157, 175–180 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Skinner, A. C., Perrin, E. M., Moss, L. A. & Skelton, J. A. Cardiometabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 373, 1307–1317 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Schwimmer, J. B., Burwinkle, T. M. & Varni, J. W. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. JAMA 289, 1813–1819 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Di Pasquale, R. & Celsi, L. Stigmatization of overweight and obese peers among children. Front. Psychol. 8, 524 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Han, J. C., Lawlor, D. A. & Kimm, S. Y. Childhood obesity. Lancet 375, 1737–1748 (2010).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Stenholm, S. et al. Body mass index as a predictor of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study. Int. J. Obes. 41, 769–775 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Must, A., Jacques, P. F., Dallal, G. E., Bajema, C. J. & Dietz, W. H. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N. Engl. J. Med. 327, 1350–1355 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Zambrano, E. et al. Maternal obesity: lifelong metabolic outcomes for offspring from poor developmental trajectories during the perinatal period. Arch. Med. Res. 47, 1–12 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Reik, W. & Walter, J. Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2, 21–32 (2001).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Franks, P. W. & Ling, C. Epigenetics and obesity: the devil is in the details. BMC Med. 8, 88 (2010).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Clarke-Harris, R. et al. PGC1α promoter methylation in blood at 5–7 years predicts adiposity from 9 to 14 years (EarlyBird 50). Diabetes 63, 2528–2537 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Villamor, E. et al. Association between maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and incidence of cerebral palsy. JAMA 317, 925–936 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Arabin, B. & Baschat, A. A. Pregnancy: an underutilized window of opportunity to improve long-term maternal and infant health — an appeal for continuous family care and interdisciplinary communication. Front. Pediatr. 5, 69 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Doring, N., Mayer, S., Rasmussen, F. & Sonntag, D. Economic evaluation of obesity prevention in early childhood: methods, limitations and recommendations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, 911 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Kinge, J. M. & Morris, S. The impact of childhood obesity on health and health service use. Health Serv. Res. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12708 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Sutherland, R. et al. Cost effectiveness of a multi-component school-based physical activity intervention targeting adolescents: the 'Physical Activity 4 Everyone' cluster randomized trial. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 13, 94 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Sonntag, D., Ali, S. & De Bock, F. Lifetime indirect cost of childhood overweight and obesity: a decision analytic model. Obesity 24, 200–206 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    Schnuerer, I. et al. Patterns of health risk behaviors among job-seekers: a latent class analysis. Int. J. Public Health 60, 111–119 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    Yates, N. et al. The economic burden of obesity in germany: results from the population-based KORA studies. Obes. Facts 9, 397–409 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    Kim, D. D. & Basu, A. Estimating the medical care costs of obesity in the United States: systematic review, meta-analysis, and empirical analysis. Value Health 19, 602–613 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    Reinehr, T., Kiess, W., Kapellen, T., Wiegand, S. & Holl, R. W. Children with diabetes mellitus type 2 in Europe: an underserved population. Arch. Dis. Child 95, 954 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    Lobstein, T. & Leach, R. Diabetes may be undetected in many children in the UK. BMJ 328, 1261–1262 (2004).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    Reinehr, T. Lifestyle intervention in childhood obesity: changes and challenges. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 9, 607–614 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53

    O'Connor, E. A. et al. Screening for obesity and intervention for weight management in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 317, 2427–2444 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. 54

    Savoye, M. et al. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatrics 127, 402–410 (2011).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55

    Finne, E., Reinehr, T., Schaefer, A., Winkel, K. & Kolip, P. Overweight children and adolescents — is there a subjective need for treatment? Int. J. Public Health 54, 112–116 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56

    Styne, D. M. et al. Pediatric obesity-assessment, treatment, and prevention: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 102, 709–757 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57

    Fried, M. et al. Inter-disciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity. Int. J. Obes. 31, 569–577 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58

    Yanovski, J. A. Intensive therapies for pediatric obesity. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 48, 1041–1053 (2001).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59

    Yanovski, S. Z. & Yanovski, J. A. Long-term drug treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical review. JAMA 311, 74–86 (2014).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60

    Krentz, A. J., Fujioka, K. & Hompesch, M. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 18, 558–570 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61

    Roth, C. L. & Reinehr, T. Roles of gastrointestinal and adipose tissue peptides in childhood obesity and changes after weight loss due to lifestyle intervention. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 164, 131–138 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62

    Sumithran, P. et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 1597–1604 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63

    Koerner, A., Kratzsch, J. & Kiess, W. Adipocytokines: leptin — the classical, resistin — the controversical, adiponectin — the promising, and more to come. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 19, 525–546 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64

    Viner, R. M., Hsia, Y., Tomsic, T. & Wong, I. C. Efficacy and safety of anti-obesity drugs in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes. Rev. 11, 593–602 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  65. 65

    Calderari, S., Diawara, M. R., Garaud, A. & Gauguier, D. Biological roles of microRNAs in the control of insulin secretion and action. Physiol. Genom. 49, 1–10 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66

    Waterland, R. A. & Michels, K. B. Epigenetic epidemiology of the developmental origins hypothesis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27, 363–388 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. 67

    Speliotes, E. K. et al. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat. Genet. 42, 937–948 (2010).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68

    Hebebrand, J., Friedel, S., Schauble, N., Geller, F. & Hinney, A. Perspectives: molecular genetic research in human obesity. Obes. Rev. 4, 139–146 (2003).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. 69

    Locke, A. E. et al. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Nature 518, 197–206 (2015).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70

    Justice, A. E. et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits. Nat. Commun. 8, 14977 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71

    Graff, M. et al. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity — a meta-analysis of 200,452 adults. PLoS Genet. 13, e1006528 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72

    Jirtle, R. L. & Skinner, M. K. Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 253–262 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73

    Baccarelli, A. & Bollati, V. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 21, 243–251 (2009).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74

    Janesick, A. & Blumberg, B. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and the developmental programming of adipogenesis and obesity. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today 93, 34–50 (2011).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75

    Osterberg, L. & Blaschke, T. Adherence to medication. N. Engl. J. Med. 353, 487–497 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76

    Berkowitz, R. I. et al. Adherence to a lifestyle program for youth with type 2 diabetes and its association with treatment outcome in the TODAY clinical trial. Pediatr. Diabetes https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12555 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77

    Tebbi, C. K. et al. Compliance of pediatric and adolescent cancer patients. Cancer 58, 1179–1184 (1986).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78

    Friedman, I. M. & Litt, I. F. Adolescents' compliance with therapeutic regimens. Psychological and social aspects and intervention. J. Adolesc. Health Care 8, 52–67 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79

    Cramer, J., Rosenheck, R., Kirk, G., Krol, W. & Krystal, J. Medication compliance feedback and monitoring in a clinical trial: predictors and outcomes. Value Health 6, 566–573 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80

    Haynes, R. B., McDonald, H. P. & Garg, A. X. Helping patients follow prescribed treatment: clinical applications. JAMA 288, 2880–2883 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. 81

    Elfhag, K. & Rossner, S. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. Obes. Rev. 6, 67–85 (2005).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. 82

    Erickson, S. J., Gerstle, M. & Feldstein, S. W. Brief interventions and motivational interviewing with children, adolescents, and their parents in pediatric health care settings: a review. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 159, 1173–1180 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  83. 83

    Dieris, B. & Reinehr, T. Treatment programs in overweight and obese children: How to achieve lifestyle changes? Obes. Med. 3, 10–16 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84

    Tome, G., Matos, M., Simoes, C., Diniz, J. A. & Camacho, I. How can peer group influence the behavior of adolescents: explanatory model. Glob. J. Health Sci. 4, 26–35 (2012).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85

    Hammersley, M. L., Jones, R. A. & Okely, A. D. Parent-focused childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity ehealth interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Med. Internet Res. 18, e203 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86

    Hilpert, M. et al. Sociocultural influence on obesity and lifestyle in children: a study of daily activities, leisure time behavior, motor skills, and weight status. Obes. Facts 10, 168–178 (2017).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87

    Taylor, J. H. et al. Psychosocial predictors and moderators of weight management programme outcomes in ethnically diverse obese youth. Pediatr. Obes. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12165 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88

    Kelleher, K. J. & Gardner, W. Out of sight, out of mind — behavioral and developmental care for rural children. N. Engl. J. Med. 376, 1301–1303 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89

    Rooksby, M., Elouafkaoui, P., Humphris, G., Clarkson, J. & Freeman, R. Internet-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Anxiety Disord. 29, 83–92 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90

    Campbell, K., Waters, E., O'Meara, S. & Summerbell, C. Interventions for preventing obesity in childhood. A systematic review. Obes. Rev. 2, 149–157 (2001).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91

    Lissner, L. et al. Differential outcome of the IDEFICS intervention in overweight versus non-overweight children: did we achieve 'primary' or 'secondary' prevention? Obes. Rev. 16 (Suppl. 2), 119–126 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  92. 92

    Danielzik, S., Pust, S., Landsberg, B. & Muller, M. J. First lessons from the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Int. J. Obes. 29 (Suppl. 2), S78–S83 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93

    Danielzik, S., Pust, S. & Muller, M. J. School-based interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in prepubertal children: process and 4-years outcome evaluation of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Acta Paediatr. 96, 19–25 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  94. 94

    Bozkurt, H., Ozer, S., Sahin, S. & Sonmezgoz, E. Internet use patterns and Internet addiction in children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatr. Obes. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12216 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  95. 95

    Zheng, W. et al. Longitudinal changes in body mass index of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Int. J. Obes. 41, 606–612 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96

    Olander, E. K., Berg, M., McCourt, C., Carlstrom, E. & Dencker, A. Person-centred care in interventions to limit weight gain in pregnant women with obesity — a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 15, 50 (2015).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. 97

    Kolu, P. et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a cluster-randomized prenatal lifestyle counseling trial: a seven-year follow-up. PLoS ONE 11, e0167759 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. 98

    Jiskoot, G. et al. A three-component cognitive behavioural lifestyle program for preconceptional weight-loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Reprod. Health 14, 34 (2017).

    CAS  PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. 99

    Yang, Y. et al. Effect of an obesity prevention program focused on motivating environments in childhood: a school-based prospective study. Int. J. Obes. 41, 1027–1034 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100

    Muckelbauer, R. et al. Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial. Pediatrics 123, e661–e667 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  101. 101

    James, J. & Kerr, D. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks. Int. J. Obes. 29 (Suppl. 2), S54–S57 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102

    Evans, C. E. L. Sugars and health: a review of current evidence and future policy. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 76, 400–407 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  103. 103

    Oliver, M. et al. Neighbourhoods for Active Kids: study protocol for a cross-sectional examination of neighbourhood features and children's physical activity, active travel, independent mobility and body size. BMJ Open 6, e013377 (2016).

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas Reinehr.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Reinehr, T. Long-term effects of adolescent obesity: time to act. Nat Rev Endocrinol 14, 183–188 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2017.147

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing