Obesogens are compounds that disrupt the function and development of adipose tissue or the normal metabolism of lipids, leading to an increased risk of obesity and associated diseases. Evidence for the adverse effects of industrial and agricultural obesogens, such as tributyltin, bisphenol A and other organic pollutants is well-established. Current evidence suggests that high maternal consumption of fat promotes obesity and increased metabolic risk in offspring, but less is known about the effects of other potential nutrient obesogens. Widespread increase in dietary fructose consumption over the past 30 years is associated with chronic metabolic and endocrine disorders and alterations in feeding behaviour that promote obesity. In this Perspectives, we examine the evidence linking high intakes of fructose with altered metabolism and early obesity. We review the evidence suggesting that high fructose exposure during critical periods of development of the fetus, neonate and infant can act as an obesogen by affecting lifelong neuroendocrine function, appetite control, feeding behaviour, adipogenesis, fat distribution and metabolic systems. These changes ultimately favour the long-term development of obesity and associated metabolic risk.
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Bruce Blumberg declares that he is a named inventor on the following US patents: 5,861,274 Nucleic acids encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; 6,200,802 Human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma: compositions and methods; 6,815,168 Human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma: compositions and methods; and 7,250,273 9 Human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma: compositions and methods.
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Goran, M., Dumke, K., Bouret, S. et al. The obesogenic effect of high fructose exposure during early development. Nat Rev Endocrinol 9, 494–500 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2013.108
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