The innate immune system recognizes nucleic acids during infection or tissue damage; however, the mechanisms of intracellular recognition of DNA have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that intracellular administration of double-stranded B-form DNA (B-DNA) triggered antiviral responses including production of type I interferons and chemokines independently of Toll-like receptors or the helicase RIG-I. B-DNA activated transcription factor IRF3 and the promoter of the gene encoding interferon-β through a signaling pathway that required the kinases TBK1 and IKKi, whereas there was substantial activation of transcription factor NF-κB independent of both TBK and IKKi. IPS-1, an adaptor molecule linking RIG-I and TBK1, was involved in B-DNA-induced activation of interferon-β and NF-κB. B-DNA signaling by this pathway conferred resistance to viral infection in a way dependent on both TBK1 and IKKi. These results suggest that both TBK1 and IKKi are required for innate immune activation by B-DNA, which might be important in antiviral innate immunity and other DNA-associated immune disorders.
*Note: In the version of this article initially published, the GEO database accession number is missing. This should be the final subsection of Methods, as follows: code. GEO: microarray data, GSE4171. The error has been corrected in the PDF version of the article.
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We thank Y. Fujita for technical support; K. Matsui, T. Hirotani and H. Kumar for support; K. Sakurai and N. Shimada for circular dichroism measurement of the DNA-lipid complex; T. Abe and Y. Matsuura for providing VSV; H. Shirota for discussions; T. Majima and K. Kawai for providing Z-DNA and for discussions; and other members of Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency and the Department of Host Defense, Osaka University, for support.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Ishii, K., Coban, C., Kato, H. et al. A Toll-like receptor–independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat Immunol 7, 40–48 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1282
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