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The modification of nanoparticles with a carbohydrate monolayer described here should be distinguished from the technique of Schröder et al. (U.S. Patent ♯4,501,726), who describe the production of large (>1500 nm) magnetic nanoparticles embedded within a covalently linked carbohydrate matrix. It should also be distinguished from efforts by Illum et al. (U.S. Patent ♯5,904,479) to coat colloidal particles with amphipalhic molecules that will prevent RES uptake via steric hindrance and decreased serum protein binding. The carbohydrates create a glassy film and as dehydroprotectants.