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Chemical safety without animals

Primary human cells provide mechanistic information for toxicology studies.

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Figure 1: Toward improved drug and chemical safety assessment without animal testing.

Debbie Maizels/Nature Publishing Group


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Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Carl Westmoreland or Paul L Carmichael.

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Competing interests

Both Dr. C. Westmoreland and Prof. P.L. Carmichael are employed by Unilever.

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Westmoreland, C., Carmichael, P. Chemical safety without animals. Nat Biotechnol 32, 541–543 (2014).

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