Intracellular delivery of materials has become a critical component of genome-editing approaches, ex vivo cell-based therapies, and a diversity of fundamental research applications. Limitations of current technologies motivate development of next-generation systems that can deliver a broad variety of cargo to diverse cell types. Here we review in vitro and ex vivo intracellular delivery approaches with a focus on mechanisms, challenges and opportunities. In particular, we emphasize membrane-disruption-based delivery methods and the transformative role of nanotechnology, microfluidics and laboratory-on-chip technology in advancing the field.
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This work was supported by the US National Institute of Health (R01GM101420-01A1). M.P.S. was supported by the Swiss NSF through the advanced postdoc mobility fellowship P300P3_151179. M.P.S. acknowledges support from a Keith Murdoch Fellowship via the American Australian Association, a Life Sciences Research Foundation Fellowship sponsored by Good Ventures, and a Broadnext10 Catalytic Steps funding gift from the Broad Institute. A.S. was supported by a Ragon Institute fellowship. We thank the following people for comments and constructive criticism: E. van Leen, D. Irvine, J. Voldman, S. Manalis, J. Weaver, J. Lieberman, R. Karnik, R. Lee, D. Mueller, S. Bhakdi, Y. Toyoda, Z. Maliga, H.-J. Lee, N. Yang, E. Lim, R. Sayde and K. Blagovic.
A.S., K.F.J. and R.L. have a financial interest in SQZ Biotech, a startup company focused on engineering immune cell function for cell based therapies (http://sqzbiotech.com/).
Nature thanks L. Lee, M. Prausnitz and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Stewart, M., Sharei, A., Ding, X. et al. In vitro and ex vivo strategies for intracellular delivery. Nature 538, 183–192 (2016) doi:10.1038/nature19764
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