Letter | Published:

The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

Nature volume 535, pages 117121 (07 July 2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes1 of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling—a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback2,3,4,5,6. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    , & Cosmological parameters from observations of galaxy clusters. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 409–470 (2011)

  2. 2.

    , , , & ROSAT HRI study of the interaction of the X-ray-emitting gas and radio lobes of NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 264, L25–L28 (1993)

  3. 3.

    , , & Asymmetric, arc minute scale structures around NGC 1275. Astron. Astrophys. 356, 788–794 (2000)

  4. 4.

    et al. Chandra X-Ray observations of the Hydra A cluster: an interaction between the radio source and the X-Ray-emitting gas. Astrophys. J. 534, L135–L138 (2000)

  5. 5.

    et al. Chandra imaging of the complex X-ray core of the Perseus cluster. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, L65–L68 (2000)

  6. 6.

    Observational evidence of active galactic nuclei feedback. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50, 455–489 (2012)

  7. 7.

    et al. The ASTRO-H X-ray astronomy satellite. Proc. SPIE 9144, 914425 (2014)

  8. 8.

    et al. Soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS): the high-resolution cryogenic spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H. Proc. SPIE 9144, 91442A (2014)

  9. 9.

    et al. ASTRO-H soft X-ray telescope (SXT). Proc. SPIE 9144, 914428 (2014)

  10. 10.

    et al. X-ray spectroscopy of the core of the Perseus cluster with Suzaku: elemental abundances in the intracluster medium. Astrophys. J. 705, L62–L66 (2009)

  11. 11.

    , , & A direct limit on the turbulent velocity of the intracluster medium in the core of Abell 1835 from XMM-Newton. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 402, L11–L15 (2010)

  12. 12.

    , & Constraints on turbulent velocity broadening for a sample of clusters, groups and elliptical galaxies using XMM-Newton. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 410, 1797–1812 (2011)

  13. 13.

    et al. Chemical Enrichment RGS cluster Sample (CHEERS): constraints on turbulence. Astron. Astrophys. 575, A38 (2015)

  14. 14.

    , , & XMM-Newton observations of the Perseus cluster. I. The temperature and surface brightness structure. Astrophys. J. 590, 225–237 (2003)

  15. 15.

    , , , & The 6.4-keV fluorescent iron line from cluster cooling flows. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 297, 1274–1278 (1998)

  16. 16.

    , , & Updated atomic data and calculations for X-Ray spectroscopy. Astrophys. J. 756, 128 (2012)

  17. 17.

    , & SPEX: a new code for spectral analysis of X & UV spectra. In 11th Colloquium on UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (eds & ) 411–414 (1996)

  18. 18.

    , & Radial brightness profiles of resonance x-ray lines in galaxy clusters. Sov. Astron. Lett. 13, 3–7 (1987)

  19. 19.

    et al. Resonant scattering in the Perseus cluster: spectral model for constraining gas motions with Astro-H. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 435, 3111–3121 (2013)

  20. 20.

    et al. Gas bulk motion in the Perseus cluster measured with Suzaku. Astrophys. J. 782, 38 (2014)

  21. 21.

    et al. A very extended molecular web around NGC 1275. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A85 (2011)

  22. 22.

    , , & On the origin and excitation of the extended nebula surrounding NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 433–448 (2006)

  23. 23.

    , & X-Ray line tomography of AGN-induced motion in clusters of galaxies. Astrophys. J. 628, 153–159 (2005)

  24. 24.

    , & Prospects of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy for active galactic nucleus feedback in galaxy clusters. Astrophys. J. 708, 462–468 (2010)

  25. 25.

    & Shocks and cold fronts in galaxy clusters. Phys. Rep. 443, 1–53 (2007)

  26. 26.

    et al. A deep Chandra observation of the Perseus cluster: shocks and ripples. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 344, L43–L47 (2003)

  27. 27.

    , & Cluster heating by viscous dissipation of sound waves. Astrophys. J. 611, 158–163 (2004)

  28. 28.

    et al. Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays. Nature 515, 85–87 (2014)

  29. 29.

    et al. Probing of the interactions between the hot plasmas and galaxies in clusters from z = 0.1 to 0.9. Astrophys. J. 767, 157 (2013)

  30. 30.

    , , & Turbulence and radio mini-halos in the sloshing cores of galaxy clusters. Astrophys. J. 762, 78 (2013)

  31. 31.

    & Standard solar composition. Space Sci. Rev. 85, 161–174 (1998)

  32. 32.

    et al. A wide Chandra view of the core of the Perseus cluster. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418, 2154–2164 (2011)

  33. 33.

    , , & Tiger observations of the low and high velocity components of NGC 1275. New Astron. 2, 345–363 (1997)

  34. 34.

    , & On the nature of the NGC 1275 system. Astron. J. 122, 2281–2300 (2001)

  35. 35.

    et al. High-resolution measurements, line identification, and spectral modeling of Kα transitions in Fe xviii–Fe xxv. Astrophys. J. 409, 846–859 (1993)

  36. 36.

    et al. spectra of heliumlike iron from tokomak-fusion-test-reactor plasmas. Phys. Rev. A 47, 3073–3079 (1993)

  37. 37.

    & The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110. Atom. Data Nucl. Data 33, 405–446 (1985)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge all the JAXA members who have contributed to the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) project. All US members gratefully acknowledge support through the NASA Science Mission Directorate. Stanford and SLAC members acknowledge support via DoE contract to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory DE-AC3-76SF00515 and NASA grant NNX15AM19G. Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the US DoE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and also supported by NASA grants to LLNL. Support from the European Space Agency is gratefully acknowledged. French members acknowledge support from CNES, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales. SRON is supported by NWO, the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The Swiss team acknowledges support of the Swiss Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI and ESA’s PRODEX programme. The Canadian Space Agency is acknowledged for the support of Canadian members. We acknowledge support from JSPS/MEXT KAKENHI grant numbers 15H02070, 15K05107, 23340071, 26109506, 24103002, 25400236, 25800119, 25400237, 25287042, 24540229, 25105516, 23540280, 25400235, 25247028, 26800095, 25400231, 25247028, 26220703, 24105007, 23340055, 15H00773, 23000004, 15H02090, 15K17610, 15H05438, 15H00785 and 24540232. H. Akamatsu acknowledges support of NWO via a Veni grant. M. Axelsson acknowledges a JSPS International Research Fellowship. C. Done acknowledges STFC funding under grant ST/L00075X/1. P. Gandhi acknowledges a JAXA International Top Young Fellowship and UK Science and Technology Funding Council (STFC) grant ST/J003697/2. H. Russell, A. C. Fabian and C. Pinto acknowledge support from ERC Advanced Grant Feedback 340442. We thank contributions by many companies, including, in particular, NEC, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Sumitomo Heavy Industries and Japan Aviation Electronics Industry. Finally, we acknowledge strong support from the following engineers. JAXA/ISAS: C. Baluta, N. Bando, A. Harayama, K. Hirose, K. Ishimura, N. Iwata, T. Kawano, S. Kawasaki, K. Minesugi, C. Natsukari, H. Ogawa, M. Ogawa, M. Ohta, T. Okazaki, S.-i. Sakai, Y. Shibano, M. Shida, T. Shimada, A. Wada, T. Yamada; JAXA/TKSC: A. Okamoto, Y. Sato, K. Shinozaki, H. Sugita; Chubu U: Y. Namba; Ehime U: K. Ogi; Kochi U of Technology: T. Kosaka; Miyazaki U: Y. Nishioka; Nagoya U: H. Nagano; NASA/GSFC: T. Bialas, K. Boyce, E. Canavan, M. DiPirro, M. Kimball, C. Masters, D. Mcguinness, J. Miko, T. Muench, J. Pontius, P. Shirron, C. Simmons, G. Sneiderman, T. Watanabe; Noqsi Aerospace Ltd: J. Doty; Stanford U/KIPAC: M. Asai, K. Gilmore; ESA (Netherlands): C. Jewell; SRON: D. Haas, M. Frericks, P. Laubert, P. Lowes; U of Geneva: P. Azzarello; CSA: A. Koujelev, F. Moroso.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland

    • Felix Aharonian
    •  & Maria Chernyakova
  2. National Research Nuclear University (MEPHI), 115409 Moscow, Russia

    • Felix Aharonian
  3. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands

    • Hiroki Akamatsu
    • , Elisa Costantini
    • , Jelle de Plaa
    • , Jan-Willem den Herder
    • , Margherita Giustini
    • , Liyi Gu
    • , Jelle Kaastra
    • , Missagh Mehdipour
    •  & Cor de Vries
  4. Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602, Japan

    • Fumie Akimoto
    • , Akihiro Furuzawa
    • , Takayuki Hayashi
    • , Kazunori Ishibashi
    • , Hideyo Kunieda
    • , Ikuyuki Mitsuishi
    • , Takuya Miyazawa
    • , Keisuke Tamura
    • , Yuzuru Tawara
    •  & Kazutaka Yamaoka
  5. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

    • Steven W. Allen
    • , Roger Blandford
    • , Tuneyoshi Kamae
    • , Ashley King
    • , Grzegorz Madejski
    • , Norbert Werner
    •  & Irina Zhuravleva
  6. Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305, USA

    • Steven W. Allen
    • , Roger Blandford
    • , Ashley King
    • , Norbert Werner
    •  & Irina Zhuravleva
  7. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA

    • Steven W. Allen
    • , Roger Blandford
    •  & Grzegorz Madejski
  8. Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan

    • Naohisa Anabuki
    • , Kiyoshi Hayashida
    • , Ryo Nagino
    • , Hiroshi Nakajima
    •  & Hiroshi Tsunemi
  9. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA

    • Lorella Angelini
    • , Keith Arnaud
    • , Meng Chiao
    • , Megan Eckart
    • , Kenji Hamaguchi
    • , Ilana Harrus
    • , Ann Hornschemeier
    • , Timothy Kallman
    • , Richard Kelley
    • , Caroline Kilbourne
    • , Hans Krimm
    • , Maurice Leutenegger
    • , Michael Loewenstein
    • , Maxim Markevitch
    • , Hideyuki Mori
    • , Harvey Moseley
    • , Koji Mukai
    • , Takashi Okajima
    • , Robert Petre
    • , F. Scott Porter
    • , Katja Pottschmidt
    • , Kazuhiro Sakai
    • , Peter Serlemitsos
    • , Yang Soong
    • , Francesco Tombesi
    • , Daniel Wik
    • , Brian Williams
    • , Hiroya Yamaguchi
    •  & Tahir Yaqoob
  10. Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA

    • Keith Arnaud
    • , Erin Kara
    • , Michael Loewenstein
    • , Richard Mushotzky
    •  & Christopher Reynolds
  11. Université de Genève, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland

    • Marc Audard
    • , Carlo Ferrigno
    • , Stephane Paltani
    •  & Martin Pohl
  12. Department of Physics, Ehime University, Ehime 790-8577, Japan

    • Hisamitsu Awaki
    •  & Yuichi Terashima
  13. Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan

    • Magnus Axelsson
    • , Yuichiro Ezoe
    • , Yoshitaka Ishisaki
    • , Takaya Ohashi
    • , Hiromi Seta
    •  & Shinya Yamada
  14. Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

    • Aya Bamba
    •  & Kazuhiro Nakazawa
  15. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Marshall Bautz
    • , Esra Bulbul
    •  & Eric Miller
  16. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS-4, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Laura Brenneman
    • , Adam Foster
    •  & Randall Smith
  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA

    • Gregory V. Brown
  18. Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK

    • Edward Cackett
    • , Andrew C. Fabian
    • , Ciro Pinto
    •  & Helen Russell
  19. Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8121, USA

    • Paolo Coppi
    • , Andrew Szymkowiak
    •  & Meg Urry
  20. Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK

    • Chris Done
  21. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan

    • Tadayasu Dotani
    • , Ken Ebisawa
    • , Matteo Guainazzi
    • , Kouichi Hagino
    • , Katsuhiro Hayashi
    • , Ryo Iizuka
    • , Hajime Inoue
    • , Yoshiyuki Inoue
    • , Manabu Ishida
    • , Motohide Kokubun
    • , Shu Koyama
    • , Shiu-Hang Lee
    • , Yoshitomo Maeda
    • , Kazuhisa Mitsuda
    • , Takao Nakagawa
    • , Shinya Nakashima
    • , Hirokazu Odaka
    • , Masanobu Ozaki
    • , Hiroaki Sameshima
    • , Goro Sato
    • , Rie Sato
    • , Aurora Simionescu
    • , Tadayuki Takahashi
    • , Yoh Takei
    • , Takayuki Tamura
    • , Yasuo Tanaka
    • , Hiroshi Tomida
    • , Masahiro Tsujimoto
    • , Shutaro Ueda
    • , Shiro Ueno
    • , Shin Watanabe
    •  & Noriko Y. Yamasaki
  22. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

    • Teruaki Enoto
    • , Shin Mineshige
    •  & Yoshihiro Ueda
  23. The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302, Japan

    • Teruaki Enoto
  24. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan

    • Ryuichi Fujimoto
    • , Toshio Murakami
    •  & Daisuke Yonetoku
  25. Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan

    • Yasushi Fukazawa
    • , Junichiro Katsuta
    • , Takao Kitaguchi
    • , Tsunefumi Mizuno
    • , Masanori Ohno
    • , Hiromitsu Takahashi
    •  & Yasuyuki Tanaka
  26. Physics Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33124, USA

    • Massimiliano Galeazzi
    •  & Eugenio Ursino
  27. Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3, Canada

    • Luigi Gallo
    •  & Dan Wilkins
  28. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

    • Poshak Gandhi
  29. IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France

    • Andrea Goldwurm
    • , Philippe Laurent
    • , François Lebrun
    • , Olivier Limousin
    •  & Daniel Maier
  30. European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Madrid, Spain

    • Matteo Guainazzi
    • , Peter Kretschmar
    •  & Norbert Schartel
  31. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, Aichi 448-8543, Japan

    • Yoshito Haba
  32. Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA

    • Kenji Hamaguchi
    • , Ilana Harrus
    • , Koji Mukai
    • , Katja Pottschmidt
    •  & Tahir Yaqoob
  33. Department of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan

    • Isamu Hatsukade
    • , Koji Mori
    •  & Makoto Yamauchi
  34. Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan

    • Junko Hiraga
  35. Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan

    • Akio Hoshino
    • , Dmitry Khangulyan
    • , Shunji Kitamoto
    • , Shinya Saito
    •  & Yasunobu Uchiyama
  36. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019, USA

    • John Hughes
  37. RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198, Japan

    • Kumi Ishikawa
    • , Toshio Nakano
    • , Hirofumi Noda
    • , Toru Tamagawa
    •  & Takayuki Yuasa
  38. Faculty of Human Development, Kobe University, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan

    • Masayuki Itoh
  39. Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan

    • Naoko Iyomoto
  40. Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan

    • Jun Kataoka
  41. Department of Physics, Chuo University, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan

    • Satoru Katsuda
    • , Yasuharu Sugawara
    •  & Yohko Tsuboi
  42. Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ibaraki 305-8505, Japan

    • Madoka Kawaharada
  43. Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan

    • Nobuyuki Kawai
    • , Satoshi Sugita
    •  & Yoichi Yatsu
  44. Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba 274-8510, Japan

    • Tetsu Kitayama
  45. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510, Japan

    • Takayoshi Kohmura
  46. Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

    • Katsuji Koyama
    • , Takaaki Tanaka
    • , Takeshi Tsuru
    •  & Hiroyuki Uchida
  47. Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, Maryland 21046, USA

    • Hans Krimm
  48. Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama 337-8570, Japan

    • Aya Kubota
  49. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA

    • Knox S. Long
  50. European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands

    • David Lumb
    •  & Arvind Parmar
  51. RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan

    • Kazuo Makishima
    •  & Megumi Shidatsu
  52. Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602, Japan

    • Hironori Matsumoto
  53. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan

    • Kyoko Matsushita
    •  & Kosuke Sato
  54. Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

    • Dan McCammon
  55. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada

    • Brian McNamara
  56. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

    • Jon Miller
    •  & Abderahmen Zoghbi
  57. Department of Information Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tohoku Gakuin University, Miyagi 981-3193, Japan

    • Hiroshi Murakami
  58. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560, Japan

    • Takeshi Nakamori
  59. Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara 630-8528, Japan

    • Masayoshi Nobukawa
  60. Research Center for Nuclear Physics (Toyonaka), Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-machi, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan

    • Masaharu Nomachi
  61. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812, USA

    • Steve O’Dell
    •  & Brian Ramsey
  62. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nara Women’s University, Nara 630-8506, Japan

    • Naomi Ota
    •  & Shigeo Yamauchi
  63. Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA

    • Frits Paerels
  64. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada

    • Samar Safi-Harb
  65. Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan

    • Makoto Sawada
    •  & Atsumasa Yoshida
  66. Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, 30-244 Kraków, Poland

    • Lukasz Stawarz
  67. Institute of Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8601, Japan

    • Hiroyasu Tajima
  68. Advanced Medical Instrumentation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Okinawa 904-0495, Japan

    • Shin’ichiro Takeda
  69. Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan

    • Makoto Tashiro
    •  & Yukikatsu Terada
  70. Science Education, Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan

    • Hideki Uchiyama
  71. Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi 475-0012, Japan

    • Shin’ichiro Uno
  72. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA

    • Daniel Wik

Consortia

  1. Hitomi Collaboration

Authors

    Contributions

    The science goals of Hitomi (known as ASTRO-H before launch) were discussed and developed over more than 10 years by the ASTRO-H Science Working Group (SWG), all members of which are authors of this manuscript. All the instruments were prepared by joint efforts of the team. Calibration of the Perseus dataset was carried out by members of the SXS team. Data analysis and manuscript preparation were carried out by a small subgroup of authors appointed by the SWG, on the basis of the extensive discussion made in the white paper produced by all SWG members. The manuscript was subject to an internal collaboration-wide review process. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Andrew C. Fabian.

    Extended data

    About this article

    Publication history

    Received

    Accepted

    Published

    DOI

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18627

    Further reading

    Comments

    By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.