Quantum teleportation1 provides a ‘disembodied’ way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication2, distributed quantum networks3 and measurement-based quantum computation4,5. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons6,7,8, atoms9, ions10,11, electrons12 and superconducting circuits13. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom—internal and external—and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin–orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Bennett, C. H. et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classic and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993)
Briegel, H. J., Dur, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)
Kimble, H. J. The quantum internet. Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008)
Gottesman, D. & Chuang, I. Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999)
Knill, E., Laflamme, R. & Milburn, G. J. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409, 46–52 (2001)
Bouwmeester, D. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)
Marcikic, I., de Riedmatten, H., Tittel, W., Zbinden, H. & Gisin, N. Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths. Nature 421, 509–513 (2003)
Takeda, S., Mizuta, T., Fuwa, M., van Loock, P. & Furusawa, A. Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique. Nature 500, 315–318 (2013)
Krauter, H. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant atomic objects. Nature Phys. 9, 400–404 (2013)
Riebe, M. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms. Nature 429, 734–737 (2004)
Barrett, M. D. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits. Nature 429, 737–739 (2004)
Pfaff, W. et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits. Science 345, 532–535 (2014)
Steffen, L. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a solid state system. Nature 500, 319–322 (2013)
Wei, T. C., Barreiro, J. T. & Kwiat, P. G. Hyperentangled Bell-state analysis. Phys. Rev. A 75, 060305(R) (2007)
Nagali, E. et al. Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through Hong–Ou–Mandel coalescence. Nature Photon. 3, 720–723 (2009)
Weinfurter, H. Experimental Bell-state analysis. Europhys. Lett. 25, 559–564 (1994)
Pan, J.-W. et al. Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry. Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777–838 (2012)
Jacobs, B. C., Pittman, T. B. & Franson, J. D. Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics. Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307 (2002)
Kwiat, P. G. et al. Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled photons. Phys. Rev. A 60, 773–776 (1999)
Barreiro, J. T., Langford, N. K., Peters, N. A. & Kwiat, P. G. Generation of hyper-entangled photon pairs. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005)
Mair, A., Vaziri, A., Weihs, G. & Zeilinger, A. Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons. Nature 412, 313–316 (2001)
Hong, C. K., Ou, Z. Y. & Mandel, L. Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987)
Barreiro, J. T., Wei, T.-C. & Kwiat, P. G. Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding. Nature Phys. 4, 282–286 (2008)
Nagali, E. et al. Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009)
Leach, J. et al. Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables. Science 329, 662–665 (2010)
Fickler, R. et al. Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta. Science 338, 640–643 (2012)
Hayashi, A., Hashimoto, T. & Horibe, M. Reexamination of optimal quantum state estimation of pure states. Phys. Rev. A 72, 032325 (2005)
Gühne, O. & Toth, G. Entanglement detection. Phys. Rep. 474, 1–75 (2009)
Żukowski, M., Zeilinger, A., Horne, M. A. & Ekert, A. “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993)
D’Ambrosio, V. et al. Complete experimental toolbox for alignment-free quantum communication. Nature Commun. 3, 961 (2012)
Graham, T. M., Barreiro, J. T., Mohseni, M. & Kwiat, P. G. Hyperentanglement-enabled direct characterization of quantum dynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060404 (2013)
Slussarenko, S. et al. The polarizing Sagnac interferometer: a tool for light orbital angular momentum sorting and spin-orbit photon processing. Opt. Express 18, 27205–27216 (2010)
Andrews, D. L. & Babiker, M. (eds) The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012)
Jack, B. et al. Precise quantum tomography of photon pairs with entangled orbital angular momentum. New J. Phys. 11, 103024 (2009)
Pan, J.-W., Gasparoni, S., Aspelmeyer, M., Jennewein, T. & Zeilinger, A. Experimental realization of freely propagating teleported qubits. Nature 421, 721–725 (2003)
Zhang, Q. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system. Nature Phys. 2, 678–682 (2006)
Yin, J. et al. Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels. Nature 488, 185–188 (2012)
Bouwmeester, D. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)
Ma, X.-S. et al. Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward. Nature 489, 269–273 (2012)
Lu, C.-Y. & Pan, J.-W. Push-button photon entanglement. Nature Photon. 8, 174–176 (2014)
Prevedel, R. et al. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward. Nature 445, 65–69 (2007)
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Fundamental Research Program (grant no. 2011CB921300).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Extended data figures and tables
Extended Data Figure 1 Hong–Ou–Mandel interference of multiple independent photons encoded with SAM or OAM.
a, Interference at the PBS where input photons 1 and 2 are intentionally prepared in the states (orthogonal SAMs; open squares) and (parallel SAMs; solid circles). The y axis shows the raw fourfold (the trigger photon t and photons 1, 2 and 3) coincidence counts. The extracted visibility is 0.75 ± 0.03, calculated from V(0) = (C+ − C//)/(C+ + C//), where C// and C+ are the coincidence counts without any background subtraction at zero delay for parallel and, respectively, orthogonal SAMs. The red and blue lines are Gaussian fits to the raw data. b, Two-photon interference on beam splitter 1, where photons 1 and 4 are prepared in orthogonal OAM states. The black line is a Gaussian fit to the raw data of fourfold (the trigger photon and photons 1, 4 and 5) coincidence counts. The visibility is 0.73 ± 0.03, calculated from V(0) = 1 – C0/C∞, where C0 and C∞ is the fitted counts at zero and, respectively, infinite delays. c, Two-photon interference at beam splitter 2, where input photons 1 and 5 are prepared in the orthogonal OAM states. The black line is a Gaussian fit to the data points. The interference visibility is 0.69 ± 0.03 calculated in the same way as in b. Error bars, 1 s.d., calculated from Poissonian counting statistics of the raw detection events.
a, A scheme for teleporting two DoFs of a single photon using three beam splitters, which is slightly different from the one presented in the main text using a PBS and two beam splitters. Through the first beam splitter, six asymmetric states, and , can result in one photon in each output, which is ensured by teleportation-based QND on the Y DoF. After passing the two photons through the two filters that project them into the and states for the X DoF, four states, and , survive. Through the second beam splitter, only the asymmetric state of the Y DoF can result in one photon in each output. Finally we can discriminate the state from the 16 hyper-entangled Bell states. b, Teleportation of three DoFs of a single photons (Methods). Note that to ensure that there is one and only one photon in the output of the first beam splitter, we can use the teleportation-based QND on two DoFs in a (dashed circle). c, Generalized teleportation of N DoFs of a single photons. The h-BSM on N DoFs can be implemented as follows: (1) the beam splitter post-selects the asymmetric hyper-entangled Bell states in N DoFs which contain an odd number of asymmetric Bell states in one DoF, (2) two filters and one bit-flip operation erase the information on the measured DoF and further post-select asymmetric states, and (3) teleportation-based QND.
a, The active feed-forward scheme. This composite active feed-forward could be completed in a step-by-step manner. First, we use an EOM to implement the active feed-forward for SAM qubits. It is important to note that EOM does not affect OAM. Second, we use a coherent quantum SWAP gate between the OAM and SAM qubits. The original OAM is converted into a ‘new’ SAM, whose active feed-forward operation is done by a second EOM. Then the OAM and SAM qubits undergo a second SWAP operation and are converted to the original DoFs. b, The quantum circuit for a SWAP gate between the OAM and SAM qubits. The SWAP gate is composed of three CNOT gates: in the first and third CNOT gates, the SAM and OAM qubits act as the control and target qubits, respectively, whereas in the second CNOT gate this is reversed.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, X., Cai, X., Su, Z. et al. Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon. Nature 518, 516–519 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14246
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon
Frontiers of Physics (2021)
ACS Photonics (2020)
Measurement-device–independent quantum secure direct communication of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon
EPL (Europhysics Letters) (2020)
Physical Review A (2020)
Environmental Development (2020)