Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Regression of orthotopic brain tumors by cytokine-assisted tumor vaccines primed in the brain

Abstract

This study investigated the therapeutic effects of a rat glioma cell line, C6, that was engineered to secrete mouse GM-CSF (mGM-CSF) on intracerebral (i.c.) brain tumors. Significant antitumor immunity was induced in rats when the live or irradiated mGM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccine was implanted i.c. The antitumor activity was effective on small tumors and, to a lesser extent, on large tumors or tumors existing in vivo for a longer duration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed cellular infiltrates (granulocytes, macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) at both the vaccine site and the tumor site, indicating that immune responses were similarly activated when tumor vaccine was inoculated in the brain, as at the subcutis. Additional studies demonstrated that the therapeutic effects of tumor vaccines on the large tumors or the long-existing tumors were enhanced by strategies such as increasing the dosage of tumor vaccines, using combined vaccines consisting of mGM-CSF and human interleukin-2, or combining tumor vaccine with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir treatment. All of the modified strategies yielded synergistic therapeutic effects on the large tumor burdens. The data presented herein suggest that cytokine gene therapy is highly promising for the treatment of i.c. gliomas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tseng, SH., Hsieh, CL., Lin, SM. et al. Regression of orthotopic brain tumors by cytokine-assisted tumor vaccines primed in the brain. Cancer Gene Ther 6, 302–312 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cgt.7700057

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cgt.7700057

Keywords

  • Gene therapy
  • glioma
  • GM-CSF
  • herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase
  • interleukin-2
  • tumor vaccine.

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links