Letter | Published:

Anodic Oxidation of Urea and an Electrochemical Approach to De-ureation

Abstract

ONE of the major functions of an artificial kidney is the removal and excretion of nitrogenous waste products. A newer type of artificial kidney (REDY)1–3 converts the urea to ammonia by the action of encapsulated urease. For elimination, the toxic ammonia must then be adsorbed. This device uses a conventional type of dialyser with a recirculating regenerative dialysate system, which does not need large quantities of dialysis fluid. As the dialysis membrane will not filter bacteria, the system can be filled with a small volume of tap water. In practice, a multitude of unwanted waste materials are adsorbed on an activated carbon cartridge, and the urea is converted to ammonia which is then adsorbed on zirconium phosphate. The phosphate concentration of the dialysate is controlled with zirconium oxide; unfortunately the zirconium compounds are expensive, thus one of the major potential advantages of the system, low cost in use, is not achieved.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1

    Gordon, A., Greenbaum, M. A., Marantz, L. B., McArthur, J., and Maxwell, M. H., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs, 15, 347 (1969).

  2. 2

    Gordon, A., Better, O. S., Greenbaum, M. A., Marantz, L. B., Gral, T., and Maxwell, M. H., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs, 17, 253 (1971).

  3. 3

    Greenbaum, M. A., and Gordon, A., Dialysis and Transplantation, 1, 18 (1972).

  4. 4

    Yao, S. J., Appleby, A. J., Geisel, A., Cash, jun., H. R., and Wolfson, jun., S. K., Nature, 224, 921 (1969).

  5. 5

    Wolfson, jun., S. K., and Yao, S. J., in Proc. 7th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conf., 733 (American Chemical Society, 1972).

  6. 6

    Yao, S. J., Appleby, A. J., and Wolfson, jun., S. K., Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge) (in the press).

  7. 7

    Giner, J., and Malachesky, P., Proc. Artif. Heart Program Conf., 839 (US Dept. Health, Education and Welfare, 1969).

  8. 8

    Giner, J., Electrochim. Acta, 8, 857 (1963).

  9. 9

    Giner, J., Electrochim. Acta, 9, 63 (1964).

  10. 10

    Yao, S. J., and Wolfson, jun., S. K., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs, 18, 60 (1972).

  11. 11

    Wolfson, jun., S. K., Yao, S. J., Geisel, A., and Cash, jun., H. R., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs, 16, 193 (1970).

  12. 12

    Yao, S. J., Michuda, M., Markley, F., and Wolfson, jun., S. K., From Electrocatalysis to Fuel Cells (edit. by Sandstede, G.), 291 (University of Washington Press, 1972).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.