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Plant symbiosis is the close and persistent co-existence of individuals of more than one species, at least one of which is a plant. In most cases both the plant and its symbiont derive an advantage from the interaction.
The NOPE1 gene is required for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in maize. The causal gene is now identified using rice. It is the first identified GlcNAc transporter in plants, needed for presymbiotic fungal reprogramming.
The role of nodule cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides during the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis is complex. They are more than just antimicrobial compounds used by the host to control bacterial growth, as previously thought.
Plants exist within a complex network of interactions with organisms both closely and distantly related to them. That none can survive ‘entire of itself’ is as true of plant science as the plants we study.