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The diagnosis of GERD using functional oesophageal testing has been previously reported, but no updated expert recommendations have been made in over a decade. In this Consensus Statement, the authors describe modern oesophageal physiological tests and their analysis with an emphasis on establishing indications and interpretation parameters for evaluating GERD in clinical practice.
, Albert J. Bredenoord
, Mark Fox
, John E. Pandolfino
, Sabine Roman
, C. Prakash Gyawali
& on behalf of the International Working Group for Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility and Function
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for gastric acid suppression in a number of gastric-acid-related diseases, including GERD. However, in recent years, increasing evidence of adverse events has been reported, raising concerns with clinicians and patients. This Review provides an update on the complications and risks of PPI use.
Metaplasia, the replacement of one differentiated somatic cell type with another in the same tissue, is a precursor to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma. There are shared principles across different types of tissue metaplasia that may be helpful in clinical considerations.
Various mechanisms eliciting symptoms in GERD and its most common phenotypic presentation, nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), have been suspected and investigated. One study now suggests that superficial nerves in the oesophageal epithelium might have a key role in the pathogenesis of NERD and could represent a potential target for topical therapies.
A new study reveals an involvement of SLC22A3 in the development of familial oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Reduced expression of SLC22A3 is detected not only in ESCC tumours but also in non-tumour tissues of patients with familial ESCC. Interestingly, adenosine-to-inosine editing of SLC22A3 mRNA is proposed to drive early tumour invasion and metastasis, by inhibiting SLC22A3 expression.