Without an approved vaccine or treatment, Ebola outbreak management has been limited to palliative care and barrier methods to prevent transmission. These approaches, however, have yet to end the 2014 outbreak of Ebola after its prolonged presence in West Africa. Here we show that a combination of monoclonal antibodies (ZMapp), optimized from two previous antibody cocktails, is able to rescue 100% of rhesus macaques when treatment is initiated up to 5 days post-challenge. High fever, viraemia and abnormalities in blood count and blood chemistry were evident in many animals before ZMapp intervention. Advanced disease, as indicated by elevated liver enzymes, mucosal haemorrhages and generalized petechia could be reversed, leading to full recovery. ELISA and neutralizing antibody assays indicate that ZMapp is cross-reactive with the Guinean variant of Ebola. ZMapp exceeds the efficacy of any other therapeutics described so far, and results warrant further development of this cocktail for clinical use.
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Extended data figures and tables
Extended Data Figures
- Extended Data Figure 1: Clinical scores for each ZMapp-treated group. (432 KB)
Arrows indicate treatment days. Dashed line represents humane endpoint threshold. Faded symbols/lines are the other two treatment groups, for comparison. Control group (Group G) is shown in black on all three panels. a, Clinical score of Group D (blue); b, clinical score of Group E (orange); c, clinical score of Group F (green).
- Extended Data Figure 2: Viraemia for each ZMapp-treated group. (374 KB)
Arrows indicate treatment days. Faded symbols/lines are the other two treatment groups, for comparison. Control group (Group G) is shown in black on all three panels. a, TCID50 of Group D (blue); b, TCID50 of Group E (orange); c, TCID50 of Group F (green). d, Viraemia by RT–qPCR of Group D (blue); e, Viraemia by RT–qPCR of Group E (orange); f, Viraemia by RT–qPCR of Group F (green).