A gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

Journal name:
Nature
Year published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nature24471
Received
Accepted
Published online

Abstract

The detection of GW170817 (ref. 1) heralds the age of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy, with the observations of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic emission from the same transient source. On 17 August 2017 the network of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)2 and Virgo3 detectors observed GW170817, a strong signal from the merger of a binary neutron-star system. Less than two seconds after the merger, a γ-ray burst event, GRB 170817A, was detected consistent with the LIGO–Virgo sky localization region4–6). The sky region was subsequently observed by optical astronomy facilities7, resulting in the identification of an optical transient signal within about 10 arcseconds of the galaxy NGC 4993 (refs 8–13). GW170817 can be used as a standard siren14–18, combining the distance inferred purely from the gravitational-wave signal with the recession velocity arising from the electromagnetic data to determine the Hubble constant. This quantity, representing the local expansion rate of the Universe, sets the overall scale of the Universe and is of fundamental importance to cosmology. Our measurements do not require any form of cosmic ‘distance ladder’19; the gravitational-wave analysis directly estimates the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales. Here we report H0 =  kilometres per second per megaparsec, which is consistent with existing measurements20,21, while being completely independent of them.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    • B. P. Abbott,
    • R. Abbott,
    • R. X. Adhikari,
    • A. Ananyeva,
    • S. B. Anderson,
    • S. Appert,
    • K. Arai,
    • M. C. Araya,
    • J. C. Barayoga,
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    • B. K. Berger,
    • G. Billingsley,
    • S. Biscans,
    • J. K. Blackburn,
    • C. D. Blair,
    • R. Bork,
    • A. F. Brooks,
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    • C. Cahillane,
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    • J. Feicht,
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  2. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA.

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  3. Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy.

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  4. INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.

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  9. University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy.

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    • S. J. Zhu
  11. The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA.

    • M. Afrough,
    • M. Cavaglià,
    • C. Cocchieri,
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    • K. Mogushi
  12. NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

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  13. University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK.

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  14. Nikhef, Science Park, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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  16. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil.

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  17. Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy.

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    • M. Branchesi,
    • E. Coccia,
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  18. INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy.

    • L. Aiello,
    • M. Branchesi,
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  19. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India.

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    • S. Dhurandhar,
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  20. International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560089, India.

    • P. Ajith,
    • Abhirup Ghosh,
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  21. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA.

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  22. Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany.

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  23. Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.

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  24. INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.

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  25. OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia.

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  26. Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

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  27. SUPA, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK.

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  28. LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France.

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  29. California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92831, USA.

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  30. European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Italy.

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  31. Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai 603103, India.

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  32. Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy.

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  33. INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy.

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  34. Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.

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    • M. Korobko,
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  35. INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy.

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    • S. Di Pace,
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  36. Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.

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    • I. Dorrington,
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  37. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, Arizona 86301, USA.

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  38. Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

    • S. Babak,
    • A. Bohe,
    • A. Buonanno,
    • V. Dergachev,
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  39. APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France.

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  40. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.

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  41. West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.

    • P. T. Baker,
    • B. D. Cheeseboro,
    • Z. B. Etienne,
    • T. D. Knowles,
    • A. Lenon &
    • S. T. McWilliams
  42. Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.

    • F. Baldaccini,
    • L. Gammaitoni &
    • H. Vocca
  43. INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.

    • F. Baldaccini,
    • M. Bawaj,
    • F. Marchesoni,
    • M. Punturo,
    • F. Travasso &
    • H. Vocca
  44. Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA.

    • S. W. Ballmer,
    • S. Bhagwat,
    • C. Biwer,
    • D. A. Brown,
    • D. Davis,
    • S. De,
    • H. Fair,
    • D. Finstad,
    • R. P. Fisher,
    • J. E. Lord,
    • F. Magaña-Sandoval,
    • L. Magaña Zertuche,
    • E. A. Muñiz,
    • L. Pekowsky,
    • S. D. Reyes,
    • J. R. Sanders,
    • P. R. Saulson,
    • D. C. Vander-Hyde &
    • T. Vo
  45. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

    • S. Banagiri,
    • M. Fitz-Axen,
    • V. Mandic,
    • A. Matas,
    • P. M. Meyers &
    • R. Ormiston
  46. SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

    • S. E. Barclay,
    • B. Barr,
    • J. C. Bayley,
    • A. S. Bell,
    • M. Chan,
    • A. Cumming,
    • L. Cunningham,
    • L. E. H. Datrier,
    • R. Douglas,
    • P. Dupej,
    • M. Fletcher,
    • H. Gabbard,
    • C. Graef,
    • A. Grant,
    • G. Hammond,
    • M. J. Hart,
    • K. Haughian,
    • M. Hendry,
    • I. S. Heng,
    • J. Hennig,
    • S. Hild,
    • J. Hough,
    • E. A. Houston,
    • S. H. Huttner,
    • H. N. Isa,
    • R. Jones,
    • D. Keitel,
    • S. Leavey,
    • K. Lee,
    • V. Mangano,
    • I. W. Martin,
    • M. Masso-Reid,
    • C. Messenger,
    • P. G. Murray,
    • G. Newton,
    • D. Pascucci,
    • B. L. Pearlstone,
    • M. Phelps,
    • M. Pitkin,
    • J. Powell,
    • N. A. Robertson,
    • R. Robie,
    • S. Rowan,
    • J. Scott,
    • B. Sorazu,
    • A. P. Spencer,
    • J. Steinlechner,
    • K. A. Strain,
    • S. C. Tait,
    • K. Toland,
    • Z. Tornasi,
    • A. A. van Veggel,
    • J. Veitch,
    • D. Williams,
    • G. Woan,
    • J. L. Wright &
    • T. Zhang
  47. LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.

    • D. Barker,
    • J. Bartlett,
    • J. C. Batch,
    • R. M. Blair,
    • F. Clara,
    • J. C. Driggers,
    • S. E. Dwyer,
    • B. Gateley,
    • C. Gray,
    • J. Hanks,
    • K. Izumi,
    • K. Kawabe,
    • P. J. King,
    • J. S. Kissel,
    • M. Landry,
    • R. McCarthy,
    • G. Mendell,
    • E. L. Merilh,
    • D. Moraru,
    • G. Moreno,
    • J. Oberling,
    • C. J. Perez,
    • M. Pirello,
    • F. J. Raab,
    • H. Radkins,
    • C. L. Romel,
    • K. Ryan,
    • T. Sadecki,
    • V. Sandberg,
    • R. L. Savage,
    • T. J. Shaffer,
    • D. Sigg,
    • A. Strunk,
    • P. Thomas,
    • C. Vorvick,
    • J. Warner,
    • B. Weaver &
    • J. Worden
  48. Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

    • K. Barkett,
    • J. Blackman,
    • Y. Chen,
    • Y. Ma,
    • B. Pang,
    • M. Scheel &
    • V. Varma
  49. Wigner RCP, RMKI, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.

    • D. Barta &
    • M. Vasúth
  50. Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

    • I. Bartos,
    • K. R. Corley,
    • S. T. Countryman,
    • T. Di Girolamo,
    • M. Factourovich,
    • S. Márka,
    • Z. Márka,
    • L. Matone &
    • A. Staley
  51. Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

    • R. Bassiri,
    • E. Bonilla,
    • R. L. Byer,
    • C. E. Cirelli,
    • D. DeBra,
    • M. M. Fejer,
    • B. Lantz,
    • A. S. Markosyan &
    • B. Shapiro
  52. Università di Camerino, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-62032 Camerino, Italy.

    • M. Bawaj &
    • F. Marchesoni
  53. Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, I-35131 Padova, Italy.

    • M. Bazzan,
    • G. Ciani &
    • M. Vardaro
  54. INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy.

    • M. Bazzan,
    • G. Ciani,
    • L. Conti,
    • C. Lazzaro,
    • M. Vardaro,
    • G. Vedovato &
    • J.-P. Zendri
  55. Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest 1117, Hungary.

    • B. Bécsy,
    • G. Dálya,
    • Z. Frei &
    • P. Raffai
  56. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland.

    • M. Bejger,
    • D. Rosińska &
    • M. Sieniawska
  57. Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA.

    • J. J. Bero,
    • J. Healy,
    • J. Lange,
    • C. O. Lousto,
    • R. O’Shaughnessy,
    • M. Rizzo,
    • J. T. Whelan,
    • J. Wofford,
    • D. M. Wysocki &
    • Y.-H. Zhang
  58. University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

    • C. P. L. Berry,
    • S. J. Cooper,
    • W. Del Pozzo,
    • M. Dovale álvarez,
    • W. M. Farr,
    • A. Freise,
    • S. M. Gaebel,
    • A. C. Green,
    • H. Miao,
    • H. Middleton,
    • C. M. Mow-Lowry,
    • S. P. Stevenson,
    • D. J. Stops,
    • E. G. Thomas,
    • D. Töyrä,
    • A. Vecchio,
    • S. Vinciguerra &
    • H. Wang
  59. INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy.

    • D. Bersanetti,
    • M. Canepa,
    • A. Chincarini,
    • A. Cirone,
    • S. Farinon,
    • G. Gemme,
    • L. Rei &
    • F. Sorrentino
  60. RRCAT, Indore MP 452013, India.

    • R. Bhandare,
    • I. Dave,
    • J. George,
    • S. A. Pai,
    • B. C. Pant,
    • S. Raja &
    • C. Rajan
  61. Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.

    • I. A. Bilenko,
    • M. L. Gorodetsky,
    • F. Y. Khalili,
    • V. P. Mitrofanov,
    • L. G. Prokhorov,
    • S. E. Strigin &
    • S. P. Vyatchanin
  62. SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK.

    • R. Birney,
    • S. Jawahar,
    • N. A. Lockerbie,
    • S. Reid &
    • K. V. Tokmakov
  63. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

    • S. Biscoveanu,
    • S. J. Chamberlin,
    • A. Gupta,
    • C. Hanna,
    • R. M. Magee,
    • D. Meacher,
    • C. Messick,
    • A. E. Pace,
    • B. S. Sathyaprakash &
    • J. Z. Wang
  64. OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • C. D. Blair,
    • D. G. Blair,
    • X. Chen,
    • Q. Chu,
    • S. Chung,
    • D. M. Coward,
    • E. J. Howell,
    • L. Ju,
    • J. Liu,
    • M. A. Page,
    • L. Wen &
    • C. Zhao
  65. Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • S. Bloemen,
    • P. Canizares,
    • S. Ghosh,
    • P. Groot,
    • T. Hinderer,
    • G. Nelemans,
    • D. Nichols,
    • S. Nissanke,
    • P. Schmidt &
    • A. R. Williamson
  66. Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.

    • M. Boer,
    • G. Bogaert,
    • A. Brillet,
    • N. Christensen,
    • F. Cleva,
    • J.-P. Coulon,
    • J.-D. Fournier,
    • H. Heitmann,
    • A. Hreibi,
    • F. Kéfélian,
    • N. Man,
    • L. Martellini,
    • M. Merzougui,
    • O. Minazzoli,
    • M. Pichot,
    • T. Regimbau &
    • J.-Y. Vinet
  67. Institut FOTON, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes, France.

    • F. Bondu
  68. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.

    • S. Bose,
    • B. R. Hall &
    • N. Mazumder
  69. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA.

    • J. E. Brau,
    • R. Frey,
    • S. Karki,
    • J. R. Palamos,
    • R. Quitzow-James,
    • V. J. Roma,
    • P. Schale,
    • R. M. S. Schofield &
    • D. Talukder
  70. Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France.

    • T. Briant,
    • S. Chua,
    • P.-F. Cohadon,
    • S. Deléglise,
    • A. Heidmann,
    • J.-M. Isac,
    • T. Jacqmin &
    • R. Metzdorff
  71. Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota 55057, USA.

    • J. E. Broida,
    • N. Christensen,
    • M. W. Coughlin,
    • M. C. Edwards &
    • J. D. Tasson
  72. OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

    • D. D. Brown,
    • H. Cao,
    • M. R. Ganija,
    • W. Kim,
    • E. J. King,
    • J. Munch,
    • D. J. Ottaway &
    • P. J. Veitch
  73. Astronomical Observatory Warsaw University, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland.

    • T. Bulik &
    • I. Kowalska
  74. VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • H. J. Bulten &
    • J. F. J. van den Brand
  75. University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

    • A. Buonanno,
    • M. Cho,
    • P. Shawhan &
    • C. C. Yancey
  76. Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA.

    • L. Cadonati,
    • J. Calderón Bustillo,
    • J. A. Clark,
    • E. E. Cowan,
    • B. Day,
    • S. S. Forsyth,
    • S. Ghonge,
    • K. Jani,
    • S. J. Kimbrell,
    • K. Napier,
    • D. M. Shoemaker &
    • K. Siellez
  77. Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

    • G. Cagnoli
  78. Università di Napoli ‘Federico II’, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.

    • E. Calloni,
    • R. De Rosa,
    • T. Di Girolamo,
    • F. Garufi &
    • L. Milano
  79. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.

    • J. B. Camp,
    • T. Dal Canton,
    • N. Gehrels &
    • L. P. Singer
  80. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy.

    • M. Canepa &
    • A. Cirone
  81. RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    • K. C. Cannon,
    • L. Tsukada &
    • D. Tsuna
  82. Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

    • J. Cao,
    • Z. Du,
    • X. Fan &
    • X. Guo
  83. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA.

    • S. Caride,
    • A. Corsi,
    • R. Coyne,
    • R. Inta,
    • B. J. Owen &
    • B. Rajbhandari
  84. Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022, USA.

    • M. F. Carney,
    • T. Chmiel,
    • C. Fee,
    • D. Moffa,
    • L. E. Wade &
    • M. Wade
  85. Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain.

    • P. Cerdá-Durán,
    • J. A. Font,
    • N. Sanchis-Gual &
    • A. Torres-Forné
  86. Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, I-00184 Roma, Italy.

    • E. Cesarini
  87. National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, China.

    • S. Chao,
    • L. Kuo,
    • Howard Pan &
    • Huang-Wei Pan
  88. Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678, Australia.

    • P. Charlton
  89. Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

    • E. Chase,
    • S. B. Coughlin,
    • V. Kalogera,
    • B. B. Miller,
    • C. Pankow,
    • L. M. Perri,
    • L. M. Sampson,
    • J. Scheuer,
    • M. S. Shahriar,
    • M. Zevin,
    • M. Zhou &
    • Z. Zhou
  90. Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada.

    • K. Chatziioannou,
    • H. Fong,
    • C.-J. Haster,
    • P. Kumar,
    • H. P. Pfeiffer &
    • A. B. Zimmerman
  91. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    • H. Y. Chen,
    • Z. Doctor,
    • B. Farr,
    • M. Fishbach &
    • D. E. Holz
  92. Pusan National University, Busan 46241, South Korea.

    • H. S. Cho,
    • Y.-M. Kim &
    • C. H. Lee
  93. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

    • A. K. W. Chung,
    • O. A. Hannuksela,
    • K. Kim,
    • K. H. Lai,
    • T. G. F. Li,
    • R. K. L. Lo,
    • K. K. Y. Ng,
    • P. T. H. Pang,
    • Y. F. Wang &
    • K. W. K. Wong
  94. INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-35122 Padova, Italy.

    • R. Ciolfi
  95. INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Italy.

    • R. Ciolfi,
    • M. Di Giovanni,
    • M. Leonardi,
    • A. Perreca,
    • G. A. Prodi,
    • S. Tiwari &
    • M. C. Tringali
  96. OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

    • P. Clearwater,
    • A. Melatos &
    • L. Sun
  97. Università di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, I-00185 Roma, Italy.

    • A. Colla,
    • S. Di Pace,
    • I. Di Palma,
    • S. Frasca,
    • G. Intini,
    • P. Leaci,
    • S. Mastrogiovanni,
    • A. L. Miller,
    • L. Naticchioni,
    • O. J. Piccinni,
    • P. Rapagnani &
    • F. Ricci
  98. Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

    • C. G. Collette &
    • J. Watchi
  99. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California 94928, USA.

    • L. R. Cominsky
  100. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain.

    • I. Cordero-Carrión &
    • A. Marquina
  101. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.

    • N. Cornish &
    • M. Millhouse
  102. Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

    • P. B. Covas,
    • C. Garcia-Quiros,
    • S. Husa,
    • F. Jiménez-Forteza,
    • M. Oliver,
    • G. Pratten,
    • A. Ramos-Buades &
    • A. M. Sintes
  103. The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, Texas 78520, USA.

    • T. D. Creighton,
    • M. C. Díaz,
    • S. R. Morriss,
    • S. Mukherjee,
    • V. Quetschke,
    • M. Rakhmanov,
    • K. E. Ramirez,
    • J. D. Romano,
    • R. Stone,
    • D. Tuyenbayev &
    • W. H. Wang
  104. Bellevue College, Bellevue, Washington 98007, USA.

    • S. G. Crowder
  105. Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India.

    • A. Dasgupta,
    • M. K. Gupta,
    • Z. Khan,
    • R. Kumar,
    • A. K. Srivastava &
    • S. Sunil
  106. The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

    • E. J. Daw,
    • T. B. Edo,
    • R. Kennedy &
    • E. Massera
  107. Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Informatiche, Università di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy.

    • R. De Pietri
  108. INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy.

    • R. De Pietri
  109. California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, California 90032, USA.

    • R. DeSalvo,
    • L. Glover,
    • S. D. Linker,
    • M. C. Milovich-Goff,
    • J. Neilson,
    • G. D. O’Dea &
    • M. B. Shaner
  110. Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Italy.

    • M. Di Giovanni,
    • M. Leonardi,
    • A. Perreca,
    • G. A. Prodi &
    • M. C. Tringali
  111. Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA.

    • M. Favata &
    • R. M. Martin
  112. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan.

    • R. Flaminio
  113. Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, E-46980 Paterna, Spain.

    • J. A. Font
  114. School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, UK.

    • J. R. Gair
  115. University and Institute of Advanced Research, Koba Institutional Area, Gandhinagar Gujarat 382007, India.

    • G. Gaur
  116. IISER-TVM, CET Campus, Trivandrum Kerala 695016, India.

    • V. Gayathri,
    • A. Pai &
    • M. Saleem
  117. University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

    • L. Gergely &
    • M. Tápai
  118. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • E. Goetz,
    • R. Gustafson,
    • A. Neunzert,
    • K. Riles &
    • O. Sauter
  119. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, India.

    • A. Gopakumar &
    • C. S. Unnikrishnan
  120. INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131 Napoli, Italy.

    • A. Grado
  121. Università degli Studi di Urbino ‘Carlo Bo’, I-61029 Urbino, Italy.

    • G. Greco,
    • G. M. Guidi,
    • F. Martelli,
    • M. Montani,
    • F. Piergiovanni,
    • G. Stratta,
    • F. Vetrano &
    • A. Viceré
  122. INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

    • G. Greco,
    • G. M. Guidi,
    • F. Martelli,
    • M. Montani,
    • F. Piergiovanni,
    • G. Stratta,
    • F. Vetrano,
    • A. Viceré &
    • G. Wang
  123. Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

    • M. Haney
  124. American University, Washington DC 20016, USA.

    • G. M. Harry,
    • M. Kinley-Hanlon &
    • J. M. Newport
  125. University of Białystok, 15-424 Białystok, Poland.

    • P. Jaranowski
  126. University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.

    • D. I. Jones
  127. University of Washington Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, Washington 98011, USA.

    • J. S. Key
  128. Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia.

    • E. A. Khazanov,
    • O. Palashov &
    • A. Sergeev
  129. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055, South Korea.

    • Chunglee Kim
  130. Inje University Gimhae, South Gyeongsang 50834, South Korea.

    • J. C. Kim &
    • H. W. Lee
  131. National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, South Korea.

    • W. S. Kim,
    • J. J. Oh,
    • S. H. Oh &
    • E. J. Son
  132. NCBJ, 05-400 Świerk-Otwock, Poland.

    • A. Królak,
    • A. Kutynia &
    • A. Zadrożny
  133. Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00656 Warsaw, Poland.

    • A. Królak &
    • M. Patil
  134. Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan 49242, USA.

    • R. N. Lang
  135. Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea.

    • H. K. Lee
  136. Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

    • H. M. Lee
  137. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35811, USA.

    • T. B. Littenberg,
    • J. Page,
    • A. A. Shah &
    • J. A. Taylor
  138. ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France.

    • V. Loriette &
    • I. Maksimovic
  139. Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA.

    • S. C. McGuire
  140. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187, USA.

    • E. E. Mikhailov &
    • M. Zhang
  141. Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Monaco.

    • O. Minazzoli
  142. Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India.

    • C. Mishra
  143. IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741252, India.

    • R. K. Nayak &
    • A. Samajdar
  144. Whitman College, 345 Boyer Avenue, Walla Walla, Washington 99362 USA.

    • G. H. Ogin
  145. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India.

    • A. Pai
  146. Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.

    • B. Patricelli
  147. Université de Lyon, F-69361 Lyon, France.

    • R. Pedurand
  148. Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York 14456, USA.

    • S. Penn &
    • S. V. Tewari
  149. OzGrav, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.

    • J. Powell &
    • S. P. Stevenson
  150. Janusz Gil Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, 65-265 Zielona Góra, Poland.

    • D. Rosińska
  151. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • M. P. Ross &
    • K. Venkateswara
  152. King’s College London, University of London, London WC2R 2LS, UK.

    • M. Sakellariadou
  153. Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Ahmedabad Gujarat 382424, India.

    • A. S. Sengupta
  154. Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Khandi, Telangana 502285, India.

    • S. Somala
  155. International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal RN 59078-970, Brazil.

    • R. Sturani
  156. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104, USA.

    • T. Z. Summerscales
  157. Università di Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.

    • L. Trozzo
  158. Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA.

    • D. Ugolini
  159. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699, USA.

    • J. L. Willis
  160. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.

    • L. Yang
  161. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

    • R. J. Foley,
    • D. A. Coulter,
    • C. D. Kilpatrick,
    • A. Murguia-Berthier,
    • Y.-C. Pan,
    • J. X. Prochaska,
    • E. Ramirez-Ruiz,
    • C. Rojas-Bravo &
    • M. R. Siebert
  162. The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, California 91101, USA.

    • M. R. Drout,
    • B. F. Madore,
    • A. L. Piro,
    • B. J. Shappee &
    • J. D. Simon
  163. Hubble and Carnegie-Dunlap Fellow.

    • M. R. Drout
  164. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    • D. Kasen
  165. Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    • D. Kasen
  166. Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • E. Ramirez-Ruiz
  167. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

    • A. Rest
  168. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai’i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

    • B. J. Shappee
  169. Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow.

    • B. J. Shappee
  170. Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, Chile.

    • N. Ulloa
  171. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA

    • J. Annis,
    • M. Soares-Santos,
    • H. T. Diehl,
    • J. Frieman,
    • S. Allam,
    • R. E. Butler,
    • A. Drlica-Wagner,
    • D. A. Finley,
    • K. Herner,
    • T. S. Li,
    • H. Lin,
    • J. Marriner,
    • A. Stebbins,
    • W. Wester,
    • B. Yanny,
    • E. Buckley-Geer,
    • J. Estrada,
    • B. Flaugher,
    • G. Gutierrez,
    • S. Kent,
    • R. Kron,
    • N. Kuropatkin,
    • E. Neilsen,
    • B. Nord,
    • V. Scarpine,
    • D. L. Tucker &
    • Y. Zhang
  172. Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA

    • M. Soares-Santos
  173. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA

    • D. Brout,
    • M. Sako,
    • L. F. Secco,
    • C. B. D’Andrea,
    • B. Jain &
    • M. March
  174. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    • D. Scolnic,
    • J. Frieman,
    • R. Kessler,
    • S. Kent &
    • R. Kron
  175. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • E. Berger,
    • K. D. Alexander,
    • P. Cowperthwaite &
    • M. Nicholl
  176. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK

    • E. Balbinot
  177. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • P. Blanchard,
    • T. Eftekhari,
    • V. A. Villar &
    • P. K. G. Williams
  178. Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA

    • R. E. Butler
  179. Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA

    • R. Chornock
  180. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA

    • E. R. Cook,
    • J. L. Marshall,
    • M. Sauseda &
    • D. L. DePoy
  181. LSST, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA

    • E. R. Cook &
    • K. Bechtol
  182. Hubble and Carnegie-Dunlap Fellow

    • M. R. Drout
  183. The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, California 91101, USA

    • M. R. Drout
  184. Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris (UMR7095: CNRS and UPMC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France

    • F. Durret
  185. Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA

    • W. Fong
  186. Hubble Fellow

    • W. Fong
  187. Center for Theoretical Astrophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544

    • C. L. Fryer
  188. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain

    • J. García-Bellido
  189. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA

    • M. S. S. Gill,
    • D. L. Burke,
    • D. Gruen,
    • A. Roodman &
    • E. S. Rykoff
  190. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA

    • R. A. Gruendl &
    • M. Carrasco Kind
  191. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA

    • R. A. Gruendl,
    • C. Hanna,
    • F. Paz-Chinchón,
    • M. Carrasco Kind &
    • M. W. G. Johnson
  192. Department of Physics and Astronomy and Astrophysics,The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA

    • C. Hanna
  193. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK

    • W. Hartley,
    • A. Palmese,
    • F. B. Abdalla,
    • A. Benoit-Lévy,
    • D. Brooks,
    • W. G. Hartley &
    • O. Lahav
  194. Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland

    • W. Hartley &
    • W. G. Hartley
  195. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

    • D. Huterer,
    • D. W. Gerdes,
    • C. J. Miller,
    • M. Schubnell &
    • G. Tarle
  196. Departments of Physics and Astronomy, and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300, USA

    • D. Kasen
  197. Observatòrio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antônio 43, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20080-090, Brazil

    • P. A. A. Lopes &
    • A. C. C. Lourenço
  198. Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA

    • R. Margutti
  199. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA

    • T. Matheson
  200. Departamento de Astronomonía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile

    • G. E. Medina &
    • R. R. Muñoz
  201. Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA

    • B. D. Metzger
  202. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040, USA

    • J. Muir
  203. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

    • P. Nugent,
    • D. A. Goldstein &
    • R. C. Thomas
  204. Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3411, USA

    • E. Quataert
  205. Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8160, USA

    • D. J. Schlegel
  206. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA

    • N. Smith
  207. Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas SP 13083-859, Brazil

    • F. Sobreira
  208. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia — LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil

    • F. Sobreira,
    • A. Carnero Rosell,
    • L. N. da Costa,
    • M. Lima,
    • M. A. G. Maia &
    • R. L. C. Ogando
  209. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile

    • A. K. Vivas,
    • A. Zenteno,
    • T. M. C. Abbott,
    • R. C. Smith &
    • A. R. Walker
  210. Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa.

    • F. B. Abdalla
  211. CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France

    • A. Benoit-Lévy &
    • E. Bertin
  212. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France

    • A. Benoit-Lévy &
    • E. Bertin
  213. Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

    • S. L. Bridle
  214. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

    • D. L. Burke,
    • C. E. Cunha,
    • C. Davis,
    • D. Gruen,
    • E. Krause,
    • A. Roodman &
    • E. S. Rykoff
  215. Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil

    • A. Carnero Rosell,
    • L. N. da Costa,
    • M. A. G. Maia &
    • R. L. C. Ogando
  216. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

    • J. Carretero,
    • E. Fernandez &
    • R. Miquel
  217. Institute of Space Sciences, IEEC-CSIC, Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, 08193 Barcelona, Spain

    • F. J. Castander,
    • P. Fosalba &
    • E. Gaztanaga
  218. Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana 502285, India

    • S. Desai
  219. Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany

    • J. P. Dietrich &
    • J. Weller
  220. Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 Munich, Germany

    • J. P. Dietrich
  221. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

    • D. W. Gerdes &
    • C. J. Miller
  222. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK

    • T. Giannantonio
  223. Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK

    • T. Giannantonio
  224. Universitäts-Sternwarte, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 München, Germany

    • T. Giannantonio &
    • J. Weller
  225. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

    • D. A. Goldstein
  226. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA

    • K. Honscheid &
    • M. A. Troxel
  227. Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA

    • K. Honscheid &
    • M. A. Troxel
  228. Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA

    • D. J. James
  229. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA

    • T. Jeltema
  230. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, New South Wales 2113, Australia

    • K. Kuehn
  231. Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA

    • S. Kuhlmann &
    • V. Vikram
  232. Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil

    • M. Lima
  233. Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain

    • R. Miquel
  234. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109, USA

    • A. A. Plazas
  235. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK

    • A. K. Romer
  236. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain

    • E. Sanchez &
    • I. Sevilla-Noarbe
  237. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

    • M. Smith
  238. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831

    • E. Suchyta
  239. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK

    • D. Thomas
  240. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany

    • J. Weller
  241. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • J. B. Haislip,
    • V. V. Kouprianov &
    • D. E. Reichart
  242. Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA.

    • L. Tartaglia &
    • D. J. Sand
  243. Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616-5270, USA.

    • L. Tartaglia,
    • S. Valenti &
    • S. Yang
  244. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Via 8 Febbraio, 2-35122 Padova, Italy.

    • S. Yang
  245. INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo della Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova, Italy.

    • S. Yang
  246. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530, USA.

    • Iair Arcavi,
    • Griffin Hosseinzadeh,
    • D. Andrew Howell,
    • Curtis McCully &
    • Sergiy Vasylyev
  247. Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, California 93117-5575, USA.

    • Iair Arcavi,
    • Griffin Hosseinzadeh,
    • D. Andrew Howell,
    • Curtis McCully &
    • Sergiy Vasylyev
  248. School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

    • Dovi Poznanski
  249. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

    • N. R. Tanvir,
    • P. A. Evans,
    • P. O’Brien,
    • J. P. Osborne,
    • S. Rosetti &
    • K. Wiersema
  250. Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

    • A. J. Levan,
    • J. Lyman,
    • D. T. H. Steeghs,
    • K. Ulaczyk &
    • K. Wiersema
  251. DARK, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

    • J. Hjorth,
    • J. P. U. Fynbo,
    • B. Milvang-Jensen &
    • D. Watson
  252. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada, Spain.

    • Z. Cano,
    • A. de Ugarte-Postigo &
    • C. C. Thöne
  253. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.

    • C. Copperwheat &
    • D. A. Perley
  254. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.

    • C. González-Fernández,
    • M. Irwin &
    • R. McMahon
  255. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, 85740 Garching, Giessenbachstrasse 1, Germany.

    • J. Greiner
  256. Birmingham Institute for Gravitational Wave Astronomy and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

    • I. Mandel
  257. INAF, Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.

    • E. Pian &
    • E. Palazzi
  258. School of Physics and Astronomy, and Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

    • E. Rol
  259. The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    • S. Rosswog
  260. Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • A. Rowlinson
  261. ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands.

    • A. Rowlinson
  262. Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.

    • S. Schulze
  263. M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Leninskie gory, GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russia.

    • V. M. Lipunov,
    • V. G. Kornilov &
    • D. Vlasenko
  264. M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky pr., 13, Moscow 119234, Russia.

    • V. M. Lipunov,
    • E. Gorbovskoy,
    • V. G. Kornilov,
    • N. Tyurina,
    • P. Balanutsa,
    • D. Vlasenko,
    • I. Gorbunov &
    • O. Gress
  265. Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar (OAFA), National University of San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.

    • R. Podesta
  266. Instituto de Ciencias Astronomicas,de la Tierra y del Espacio (ICATE), San Juan, Argentina.

    • H. Levato &
    • C. Saffe
  267. South African Astrophysical Observatory, PO Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

    • D. A. H. Buckley
  268. Irkutsk State University, Applied Physics Institute, 20 Gagarin boulevard, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia.

    • N. M. Budnev &
    • O. Gress
  269. Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University, Lenin street 104, Amur Region, Blagoveschensk 675000, Russia.

    • V. Yurkov
  270. Instituto de Astrofacuteisica de Canarias Via Lactea, E-38205La Laguna, Spain.

    • R. Rebolo &
    • M. Serra-Ricart

Consortia

  1. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration

    • B. P. Abbott,
    • R. Abbott,
    • T. D. Abbott,
    • F. Acernese,
    • K. Ackley,
    • C. Adams,
    • T. Adams,
    • P. Addesso,
    • R. X. Adhikari,
    • V. B. Adya,
    • C. Affeldt,
    • M. Afrough,
    • B. Agarwal,
    • M. Agathos,
    • K. Agatsuma,
    • N. Aggarwal,
    • O. D. Aguiar,
    • L. Aiello,
    • A. Ain,
    • P. Ajith,
    • B. Allen,
    • G. Allen,
    • A. Allocca,
    • P. A. Altin,
    • A. Amato,
    • A. Ananyeva,
    • S. B. Anderson,
    • W. G. Anderson,
    • S. V. Angelova,
    • S. Antier,
    • S. Appert,
    • K. Arai,
    • M. C. Araya,
    • J. S. Areeda,
    • N. Arnaud,
    • K. G. Arun,
    • S. Ascenzi,
    • G. Ashton,
    • M. Ast,
    • S. M. Aston,
    • P. Astone,
    • D. V. Atallah,
    • P. Aufmuth,
    • C. Aulbert,
    • K. AultONeal,
    • C. Austin,
    • A. Avila-Alvarez,
    • S. Babak,
    • P. Bacon,
    • M. K. M. Bader,
    • S. Bae,
    • P. T. Baker,
    • F. Baldaccini,
    • G. Ballardin,
    • S. W. Ballmer,
    • S. Banagiri,
    • J. C. Barayoga,
    • S. E. Barclay,
    • B. C. Barish,
    • D. Barker,
    • K. Barkett,
    • F. Barone,
    • B. Barr,
    • L. Barsotti,
    • M. Barsuglia,
    • D. Barta,
    • J. Bartlett,
    • I. Bartos,
    • R. Bassiri,
    • A. Basti,
    • J. C. Batch,
    • M. Bawaj,
    • J. C. Bayley,
    • M. Bazzan,
    • B. Bécsy,
    • C. Beer,
    • M. Bejger,
    • I. Belahcene,
    • A. S. Bell,
    • B. K. Berger,
    • G. Bergmann,
    • J. J. Bero,
    • C. P. L. Berry,
    • D. Bersanetti,
    • A. Bertolini,
    • J. Betzwieser,
    • S. Bhagwat,
    • R. Bhandare,
    • I. A. Bilenko,
    • G. Billingsley,
    • C. R. Billman,
    • J. Birch,
    • R. Birney,
    • O. Birnholtz,
    • S. Biscans,
    • S. Biscoveanu,
    • A. Bisht,
    • M. Bitossi,
    • C. Biwer,
    • M. A. Bizouard,
    • J. K. Blackburn,
    • J. Blackman,
    • C. D. Blair,
    • D. G. Blair,
    • R. M. Blair,
    • S. Bloemen,
    • O. Bock,
    • N. Bode,
    • M. Boer,
    • G. Bogaert,
    • A. Bohe,
    • F. Bondu,
    • E. Bonilla,
    • R. Bonnand,
    • B. A. Boom,
    • R. Bork,
    • V. Boschi,
    • S. Bose,
    • K. Bossie,
    • Y. Bouffanais,
    • A. Bozzi,
    • C. Bradaschia,
    • P. R. Brady,
    • M. Branchesi,
    • J. E. Brau,
    • T. Briant,
    • A. Brillet,
    • M. Brinkmann,
    • V. Brisson,
    • P. Brockill,
    • J. E. Broida,
    • A. F. Brooks,
    • D. A. Brown,
    • D. D. Brown,
    • S. Brunett,
    • C. C. Buchanan,
    • A. Buikema,
    • T. Bulik,
    • H. J. Bulten,
    • A. Buonanno,
    • D. Buskulic,
    • C. Buy,
    • R. L. Byer,
    • M. Cabero,
    • L. Cadonati,
    • G. Cagnoli,
    • C. Cahillane,
    • J. Calderón Bustillo,
    • T. A. Callister,
    • E. Calloni,
    • J. B. Camp,
    • M. Canepa,
    • P. Canizares,
    • K. C. Cannon,
    • H. Cao,
    • J. Cao,
    • C. D. Capano,
    • E. Capocasa,
    • F. Carbognani,
    • S. Caride,
    • M. F. Carney,
    • J. Casanueva Diaz,
    • C. Casentini,
    • S. Caudill,
    • M. Cavaglià,
    • F. Cavalier,
    • R. Cavalieri,
    • G. Cella,
    • C. B. Cepeda,
    • P. Cerdá-Durán,
    • G. Cerretani,
    • E. Cesarini,
    • S. J. Chamberlin,
    • M. Chan,
    • S. Chao,
    • P. Charlton,
    • E. Chase,
    • E. Chassande-Mottin,
    • D. Chatterjee,
    • K. Chatziioannou,
    • B. D. Cheeseboro,
    • H. Y. Chen,
    • X. Chen,
    • Y. Chen,
    • H.-P. Cheng,
    • H. Chia,
    • A. Chincarini,
    • A. Chiummo,
    • T. Chmiel,
    • H. S. Cho,
    • M. Cho,
    • J. H. Chow,
    • N. Christensen,
    • Q. Chu,
    • A. J. K. Chua,
    • S. Chua,
    • A. K. W. Chung,
    • S. Chung,
    • G. Ciani,
    • R. Ciolfi,
    • C. E. Cirelli,
    • A. Cirone,
    • F. Clara,
    • J. A. Clark,
    • P. Clearwater,
    • F. Cleva,
    • C. Cocchieri,
    • E. Coccia,
    • P.-F. Cohadon,
    • D. Cohen,
    • A. Colla,
    • C. G. Collette,
    • L. R. Cominsky,
    • M. Constancio Jr.,
    • L. Conti,
    • S. J. Cooper,
    • P. Corban,
    • T. R. Corbitt,
    • I. Cordero-Carrión,
    • K. R. Corley,
    • N. Cornish,
    • A. Corsi,
    • S. Cortese,
    • C. A. Costa,
    • M. W. Coughlin,
    • S. B. Coughlin,
    • J.-P. Coulon,
    • S. T. Countryman,
    • P. Couvares,
    • P. B. Covas,
    • E. E. Cowan,
    • D. M. Coward,
    • M. J. Cowart,
    • D. C. Coyne,
    • R. Coyne,
    • J. D. E. Creighton,
    • T. D. Creighton,
    • J. Cripe,
    • S. G. Crowder,
    • T. J. Cullen,
    • A. Cumming,
    • L. Cunningham,
    • E. Cuoco,
    • T. Dal Canton,
    • G. Dálya,
    • S. L. Danilishin,
    • S. D’Antonio,
    • K. Danzmann,
    • A. Dasgupta,
    • C. F. Da Silva Costa,
    • L. E. H. Datrier,
    • V. Dattilo,
    • I. Dave,
    • M. Davier,
    • D. Davis,
    • E. J. Daw,
    • B. Day,
    • S. De,
    • D. DeBra,
    • J. Degallaix,
    • M. De Laurentis,
    • S. Deléglise,
    • W. Del Pozzo,
    • N. Demos,
    • T. Denker,
    • T. Dent,
    • R. De Pietri,
    • V. Dergachev,
    • R. De Rosa,
    • R. T. DeRosa,
    • C. De Rossi,
    • R. DeSalvo,
    • O. de Varona,
    • J. Devenson,
    • S. Dhurandhar,
    • M. C. Díaz,
    • L. Di Fiore,
    • M. Di Giovanni,
    • T. Di Girolamo,
    • A. Di Lieto,
    • S. Di Pace,
    • I. Di Palma,
    • F. Di Renzo,
    • Z. Doctor,
    • V. Dolique,
    • F. Donovan,
    • K. L. Dooley,
    • S. Doravari,
    • I. Dorrington,
    • R. Douglas,
    • M. Dovale álvarez,
    • T. P. Downes,
    • M. Drago,
    • C. Dreissigacker,
    • J. C. Driggers,
    • Z. Du,
    • M. Ducrot,
    • P. Dupej,
    • S. E. Dwyer,
    • T. B. Edo,
    • M. C. Edwards,
    • A. Effler,
    • H.-B. Eggenstein,
    • P. Ehrens,
    • J. Eichholz,
    • S. S. Eikenberry,
    • R. A. Eisenstein,
    • R. C. Essick,
    • D. Estevez,
    • Z. B. Etienne,
    • T. Etzel,
    • M. Evans,
    • T. M. Evans,
    • M. Factourovich,
    • V. Fafone,
    • H. Fair,
    • S. Fairhurst,
    • X. Fan,
    • S. Farinon,
    • B. Farr,
    • W. M. Farr,
    • E. J. Fauchon-Jones,
    • M. Favata,
    • M. Fays,
    • C. Fee,
    • H. Fehrmann,
    • J. Feicht,
    • M. M. Fejer,
    • A. Fernandez-Galiana,
    • I. Ferrante,
    • E. C. Ferreira,
    • F. Ferrini,
    • F. Fidecaro,
    • D. Finstad,
    • I. Fiori,
    • D. Fiorucci,
    • M. Fishbach,
    • R. P. Fisher,
    • M. Fitz-Axen,
    • R. Flaminio,
    • M. Fletcher,
    • H. Fong,
    • J. A. Font,
    • P. W. F. Forsyth,
    • S. S. Forsyth,
    • J.-D. Fournier,
    • S. Frasca,
    • F. Frasconi,
    • Z. Frei,
    • A. Freise,
    • R. Frey,
    • V. Frey,
    • E. M. Fries,
    • P. Fritschel,
    • V. V. Frolov,
    • P. Fulda,
    • M. Fyffe,
    • H. Gabbard,
    • B. U. Gadre,
    • S. M. Gaebel,
    • J. R. Gair,
    • L. Gammaitoni,
    • M. R. Ganija,
    • S. G. Gaonkar,
    • C. Garcia-Quiros,
    • F. Garufi,
    • B. Gateley,
    • S. Gaudio,
    • G. Gaur,
    • V. Gayathri,
    • N. Gehrels,
    • G. Gemme,
    • E. Genin,
    • A. Gennai,
    • D. George,
    • J. George,
    • L. Gergely,
    • V. Germain,
    • S. Ghonge,
    • Abhirup Ghosh,
    • Archisman Ghosh,
    • S. Ghosh,
    • J. A. Giaime,
    • K. D. Giardina,
    • A. Giazotto,
    • K. Gill,
    • L. Glover,
    • E. Goetz,
    • R. Goetz,
    • S. Gomes,
    • B. Goncharov,
    • G. González,
    • J. M. Gonzalez Castro,
    • A. Gopakumar,
    • M. L. Gorodetsky,
    • S. E. Gossan,
    • M. Gosselin,
    • R. Gouaty,
    • A. Grado,
    • C. Graef,
    • M. Granata,
    • A. Grant,
    • S. Gras,
    • C. Gray,
    • G. Greco,
    • A. C. Green,
    • E. M. Gretarsson,
    • P. Groot,
    • H. Grote,
    • S. Grunewald,
    • P. Gruning,
    • G. M. Guidi,
    • X. Guo,
    • A. Gupta,
    • M. K. Gupta,
    • K. E. Gushwa,
    • E. K. Gustafson,
    • R. Gustafson,
    • O. Halim,
    • B. R. Hall,
    • E. D. Hall,
    • E. Z. Hamilton,
    • G. Hammond,
    • M. Haney,
    • M. M. Hanke,
    • J. Hanks,
    • C. Hanna,
    • M. D. Hannam,
    • O. A. Hannuksela,
    • J. Hanson,
    • T. Hardwick,
    • J. Harms,
    • G. M. Harry,
    • I. W. Harry,
    • M. J. Hart,
    • C.-J. Haster,
    • K. Haughian,
    • J. Healy,
    • A. Heidmann,
    • M. C. Heintze,
    • H. Heitmann,
    • P. Hello,
    • G. Hemming,
    • M. Hendry,
    • I. S. Heng,
    • J. Hennig,
    • A. W. Heptonstall,
    • M. Heurs,
    • S. Hild,
    • T. Hinderer,
    • D. Hoak,
    • D. Hofman,
    • K. Holt,
    • D. E. Holz,
    • P. Hopkins,
    • C. Horst,
    • J. Hough,
    • E. A. Houston,
    • E. J. Howell,
    • A. Hreibi,
    • Y. M. Hu,
    • E. A. Huerta,
    • D. Huet,
    • B. Hughey,
    • S. Husa,
    • S. H. Huttner,
    • T. Huynh-Dinh,
    • N. Indik,
    • R. Inta,
    • G. Intini,
    • H. N. Isa,
    • J.-M. Isac,
    • M. Isi,
    • B. R. Iyer,
    • K. Izumi,
    • T. Jacqmin,
    • K. Jani,
    • P. Jaranowski,
    • S. Jawahar,
    • F. Jiménez-Forteza,
    • W. W. Johnson,
    • D. I. Jones,
    • R. Jones,
    • R. J. G. Jonker,
    • L. Ju,
    • J. Junker,
    • C. V. Kalaghatgi,
    • V. Kalogera,
    • B. Kamai,
    • S. Kandhasamy,
    • G. Kang,
    • J. B. Kanner,
    • S. J. Kapadia,
    • S. Karki,
    • K. S. Karvinen,
    • M. Kasprzack,
    • M. Katolik,
    • E. Katsavounidis,
    • W. Katzman,
    • S. Kaufer,
    • K. Kawabe,
    • F. Kéfélian,
    • D. Keitel,
    • A. J. Kemball,
    • R. Kennedy,
    • C. Kent,
    • J. S. Key,
    • F. Y. Khalili,
    • I. Khan,
    • S. Khan,
    • Z. Khan,
    • E. A. Khazanov,
    • N. Kijbunchoo,
    • Chunglee Kim,
    • J. C. Kim,
    • K. Kim,
    • W. Kim,
    • W. S. Kim,
    • Y.-M. Kim,
    • S. J. Kimbrell,
    • E. J. King,
    • P. J. King,
    • M. Kinley-Hanlon,
    • R. Kirchhoff,
    • J. S. Kissel,
    • L. Kleybolte,
    • S. Klimenko,
    • T. D. Knowles,
    • P. Koch,
    • S. M. Koehlenbeck,
    • S. Koley,
    • V. Kondrashov,
    • A. Kontos,
    • M. Korobko,
    • W. Z. Korth,
    • I. Kowalska,
    • D. B. Kozak,
    • C. Krämer,
    • V. Kringel,
    • B. Krishnan,
    • A. Królak,
    • G. Kuehn,
    • P. Kumar,
    • R. Kumar,
    • S. Kumar,
    • L. Kuo,
    • A. Kutynia,
    • S. Kwang,
    • B. D. Lackey,
    • K. H. Lai,
    • M. Landry,
    • R. N. Lang,
    • J. Lange,
    • B. Lantz,
    • R. K. Lanza,
    • A. Lartaux-Vollard,
    • P. D. Lasky,
    • M. Laxen,
    • A. Lazzarini,
    • C. Lazzaro,
    • P. Leaci,
    • S. Leavey,
    • C. H. Lee,
    • H. K. Lee,
    • H. M. Lee,
    • H. W. Lee,
    • K. Lee,
    • J. Lehmann,
    • A. Lenon,
    • M. Leonardi,
    • N. Leroy,
    • N. Letendre,
    • Y. Levin,
    • T. G. F. Li,
    • S. D. Linker,
    • T. B. Littenberg,
    • J. Liu,
    • X. Liu,
    • R. K. L. Lo,
    • N. A. Lockerbie,
    • L. T. London,
    • J. E. Lord,
    • M. Lorenzini,
    • V. Loriette,
    • M. Lormand,
    • G. Losurdo,
    • J. D. Lough,
    • C. O. Lousto,
    • G. Lovelace,
    • H. Lück,
    • D. Lumaca,
    • A. P. Lundgren,
    • R. Lynch,
    • Y. Ma,
    • R. Macas,
    • S. Macfoy,
    • B. Machenschalk,
    • M. MacInnis,
    • D. M. Macleod,
    • I. Magaña Hernandez,
    • F. Magaña-Sandoval,
    • L. Magaña Zertuche,
    • R. M. Magee,
    • E. Majorana,
    • I. Maksimovic,
    • N. Man,
    • V. Mandic,
    • V. Mangano,
    • G. L. Mansell,
    • M. Manske,
    • M. Mantovani,
    • F. Marchesoni,
    • F. Marion,
    • S. Márka,
    • Z. Márka,
    • C. Markakis,
    • A. S. Markosyan,
    • A. Markowitz,
    • E. Maros,
    • A. Marquina,
    • F. Martelli,
    • L. Martellini,
    • I. W. Martin,
    • R. M. Martin,
    • D. V. Martynov,
    • K. Mason,
    • E. Massera,
    • A. Masserot,
    • T. J. Massinger,
    • M. Masso-Reid,
    • S. Mastrogiovanni,
    • A. Matas,
    • F. Matichard,
    • L. Matone,
    • N. Mavalvala,
    • N. Mazumder,
    • R. McCarthy,
    • D. E. McClelland,
    • S. McCormick,
    • L. McCuller,
    • S. C. McGuire,
    • G. McIntyre,
    • J. McIver,
    • D. J. McManus,
    • L. McNeill,
    • T. McRae,
    • S. T. McWilliams,
    • D. Meacher,
    • G. D. Meadors,
    • M. Mehmet,
    • J. Meidam,
    • E. Mejuto-Villa,
    • A. Melatos,
    • G. Mendell,
    • R. A. Mercer,
    • E. L. Merilh,
    • M. Merzougui,
    • S. Meshkov,
    • C. Messenger,
    • C. Messick,
    • R. Metzdorff,
    • P. M. Meyers,
    • H. Miao,
    • C. Michel,
    • H. Middleton,
    • E. E. Mikhailov,
    • L. Milano,
    • A. L. Miller,
    • B. B. Miller,
    • J. Miller,
    • M. Millhouse,
    • M. C. Milovich-Goff,
    • O. Minazzoli,
    • Y. Minenkov,
    • J. Ming,
    • C. Mishra,
    • S. Mitra,
    • V. P. Mitrofanov,
    • G. Mitselmakher,
    • R. Mittleman,
    • D. Moffa,
    • A. Moggi,
    • K. Mogushi,
    • M. Mohan,
    • S. R. P. Mohapatra,
    • M. Montani,
    • C. J. Moore,
    • D. Moraru,
    • G. Moreno,
    • S. R. Morriss,
    • B. Mours,
    • C. M. Mow-Lowry,
    • G. Mueller,
    • A. W. Muir,
    • Arunava Mukherjee,
    • D. Mukherjee,
    • S. Mukherjee,
    • N. Mukund,
    • A. Mullavey,
    • J. Munch,
    • E. A. Muñiz,
    • M. Muratore,
    • P. G. Murray,
    • K. Napier,
    • I. Nardecchia,
    • L. Naticchioni,
    • R. K. Nayak,
    • J. Neilson,
    • G. Nelemans,
    • T. J. N. Nelson,
    • M. Nery,
    • A. Neunzert,
    • L. Nevin,
    • J. M. Newport,
    • G. Newton,
    • K. K. Y. Ng,
    • T. T. Nguyen,
    • D. Nichols,
    • A. B. Nielsen,
    • S. Nissanke,
    • A. Nitz,
    • A. Noack,
    • F. Nocera,
    • D. Nolting,
    • C. North,
    • L. K. Nuttall,
    • J. Oberling,
    • G. D. O’Dea,
    • G. H. Ogin,
    • J. J. Oh,
    • S. H. Oh,
    • F. Ohme,
    • M. A. Okada,
    • M. Oliver,
    • P. Oppermann,
    • Richard J. Oram,
    • B. O’Reilly,
    • R. Ormiston,
    • L. F. Ortega,
    • R. O’Shaughnessy,
    • S. Ossokine,
    • D. J. Ottaway,
    • H. Overmier,
    • B. J. Owen,
    • A. E. Pace,
    • J. Page,
    • M. A. Page,
    • A. Pai,
    • S. A. Pai,
    • J. R. Palamos,
    • O. Palashov,
    • C. Palomba,
    • A. Pal-Singh,
    • Howard Pan,
    • Huang-Wei Pan,
    • B. Pang,
    • P. T. H. Pang,
    • C. Pankow,
    • F. Pannarale,
    • B. C. Pant,
    • F. Paoletti,
    • A. Paoli,
    • M. A. Papa,
    • A. Parida,
    • W. Parker,
    • D. Pascucci,
    • A. Pasqualetti,
    • R. Passaquieti,
    • D. Passuello,
    • M. Patil,
    • B. Patricelli,
    • B. L. Pearlstone,
    • M. Pedraza,
    • R. Pedurand,
    • L. Pekowsky,
    • A. Pele,
    • S. Penn,
    • C. J. Perez,
    • A. Perreca,
    • L. M. Perri,
    • H. P. Pfeiffer,
    • M. Phelps,
    • O. J. Piccinni,
    • M. Pichot,
    • F. Piergiovanni,
    • V. Pierro,
    • G. Pillant,
    • L. Pinard,
    • I. M. Pinto,
    • M. Pirello,
    • M. Pitkin,
    • M. Poe,
    • R. Poggiani,
    • P. Popolizio,
    • E. K. Porter,
    • A. Post,
    • J. Powell,
    • J. Prasad,
    • J. W. W. Pratt,
    • G. Pratten,
    • V. Predoi,
    • T. Prestegard,
    • M. Prijatelj,
    • M. Principe,
    • S. Privitera,
    • G. A. Prodi,
    • L. G. Prokhorov,
    • O. Puncken,
    • M. Punturo,
    • P. Puppo,
    • M. Pürrer,
    • H. Qi,
    • V. Quetschke,
    • E. A. Quintero,
    • R. Quitzow-James,
    • F. J. Raab,
    • D. S. Rabeling,
    • H. Radkins,
    • P. Raffai,
    • S. Raja,
    • C. Rajan,
    • B. Rajbhandari,
    • M. Rakhmanov,
    • K. E. Ramirez,
    • A. Ramos-Buades,
    • P. Rapagnani,
    • V. Raymond,
    • M. Razzano,
    • J. Read,
    • T. Regimbau,
    • L. Rei,
    • S. Reid,
    • D. H. Reitze,
    • W. Ren,
    • S. D. Reyes,
    • F. Ricci,
    • P. M. Ricker,
    • S. Rieger,
    • K. Riles,
    • M. Rizzo,
    • N. A. Robertson,
    • R. Robie,
    • F. Robinet,
    • A. Rocchi,
    • L. Rolland,
    • J. G. Rollins,
    • V. J. Roma,
    • J. D. Romano,
    • R. Romano,
    • C. L. Romel,
    • J. H. Romie,
    • D. Rosińska,
    • M. P. Ross,
    • S. Rowan,
    • A. Rüdiger,
    • P. Ruggi,
    • G. Rutins,
    • K. Ryan,
    • S. Sachdev,
    • T. Sadecki,
    • L. Sadeghian,
    • M. Sakellariadou,
    • L. Salconi,
    • M. Saleem,
    • F. Salemi,
    • A. Samajdar,
    • L. Sammut,
    • L. M. Sampson,
    • E. J. Sanchez,
    • L. E. Sanchez,
    • N. Sanchis-Gual,
    • V. Sandberg,
    • J. R. Sanders,
    • B. Sassolas,
    • B. S. Sathyaprakash,
    • P. R. Saulson,
    • O. Sauter,
    • R. L. Savage,
    • A. Sawadsky,
    • P. Schale,
    • M. Scheel,
    • J. Scheuer,
    • J. Schmidt,
    • P. Schmidt,
    • R. Schnabel,
    • R. M. S. Schofield,
    • A. Schönbeck,
    • E. Schreiber,
    • D. Schuette,
    • B. W. Schulte,
    • B. F. Schutz,
    • S. G. Schwalbe,
    • J. Scott,
    • S. M. Scott,
    • E. Seidel,
    • D. Sellers,
    • A. S. Sengupta,
    • D. Sentenac,
    • V. Sequino,
    • A. Sergeev,
    • D. A. Shaddock,
    • T. J. Shaffer,
    • A. A. Shah,
    • M. S. Shahriar,
    • M. B. Shaner,
    • L. Shao,
    • B. Shapiro,
    • P. Shawhan,
    • A. Sheperd,
    • D. H. Shoemaker,
    • D. M. Shoemaker,
    • K. Siellez,
    • X. Siemens,
    • M. Sieniawska,
    • D. Sigg,
    • A. D. Silva,
    • L. P. Singer,
    • A. Singh,
    • A. Singhal,
    • A. M. Sintes,
    • B. J. J. Slagmolen,
    • B. Smith,
    • J. R. Smith,
    • R. J. E. Smith,
    • S. Somala,
    • E. J. Son,
    • J. A. Sonnenberg,
    • B. Sorazu,
    • F. Sorrentino,
    • T. Souradeep,
    • A. P. Spencer,
    • A. K. Srivastava,
    • K. Staats,
    • A. Staley,
    • D. Steer,
    • M. Steinke,
    • J. Steinlechner,
    • S. Steinlechner,
    • D. Steinmeyer,
    • S. P. Stevenson,
    • R. Stone,
    • D. J. Stops,
    • K. A. Strain,
    • G. Stratta,
    • S. E. Strigin,
    • A. Strunk,
    • R. Sturani,
    • A. L. Stuver,
    • T. Z. Summerscales,
    • L. Sun,
    • S. Sunil,
    • J. Suresh,
    • P. J. Sutton,
    • B. L. Swinkels,
    • M. J. Szczepańczyk,
    • M. Tacca,
    • S. C. Tait,
    • C. Talbot,
    • D. Talukder,
    • D. B. Tanner,
    • M. Tápai,
    • A. Taracchini,
    • J. D. Tasson,
    • J. A. Taylor,
    • R. Taylor,
    • S. V. Tewari,
    • T. Theeg,
    • F. Thies,
    • E. G. Thomas,
    • M. Thomas,
    • P. Thomas,
    • K. A. Thorne,
    • E. Thrane,
    • S. Tiwari,
    • V. Tiwari,
    • K. V. Tokmakov,
    • K. Toland,
    • M. Tonelli,
    • Z. Tornasi,
    • A. Torres-Forné,
    • C. I. Torrie,
    • D. Töyrä,
    • F. Travasso,
    • G. Traylor,
    • J. Trinastic,
    • M. C. Tringali,
    • L. Trozzo,
    • K. W. Tsang,
    • M. Tse,
    • R. Tso,
    • L. Tsukada,
    • D. Tsuna,
    • D. Tuyenbayev,
    • K. Ueno,
    • D. Ugolini,
    • C. S. Unnikrishnan,
    • A. L. Urban,
    • S. A. Usman,
    • H. Vahlbruch,
    • G. Vajente,
    • G. Valdes,
    • N. van Bakel,
    • M. van Beuzekom,
    • J. F. J. van den Brand,
    • C. Van Den Broeck,
    • D. C. Vander-Hyde,
    • L. van der Schaaf,
    • J. V. van Heijningen,
    • A. A. van Veggel,
    • M. Vardaro,
    • V. Varma,
    • S. Vass,
    • M. Vasúth,
    • A. Vecchio,
    • G. Vedovato,
    • J. Veitch,
    • P. J. Veitch,
    • K. Venkateswara,
    • G. Venugopalan,
    • D. Verkindt,
    • F. Vetrano,
    • A. Viceré,
    • A. D. Viets,
    • S. Vinciguerra,
    • D. J. Vine,
    • J.-Y. Vinet,
    • S. Vitale,
    • T. Vo,
    • H. Vocca,
    • C. Vorvick,
    • S. P. Vyatchanin,
    • A. R. Wade,
    • L. E. Wade,
    • M. Wade,
    • R. Walet,
    • M. Walker,
    • L. Wallace,
    • S. Walsh,
    • G. Wang,
    • H. Wang,
    • J. Z. Wang,
    • W. H. Wang,
    • Y. F. Wang,
    • R. L. Ward,
    • J. Warner,
    • M. Was,
    • J. Watchi,
    • B. Weaver,
    • L.-W. Wei,
    • M. Weinert,
    • A. J. Weinstein,
    • R. Weiss,
    • L. Wen,
    • E. K. Wessel,
    • P. Weßels,
    • J. Westerweck,
    • T. Westphal,
    • K. Wette,
    • J. T. Whelan,
    • S. E. Whitcomb,
    • B. F. Whiting,
    • C. Whittle,
    • D. Wilken,
    • D. Williams,
    • R. D. Williams,
    • A. R. Williamson,
    • J. L. Willis,
    • B. Willke,
    • M. H. Wimmer,
    • W. Winkler,
    • C. C. Wipf,
    • H. Wittel,
    • G. Woan,
    • J. Woehler,
    • J. Wofford,
    • K. W. K. Wong,
    • J. Worden,
    • J. L. Wright,
    • D. S. Wu,
    • D. M. Wysocki,
    • S. Xiao,
    • H. Yamamoto,
    • C. C. Yancey,
    • L. Yang,
    • M. J. Yap,
    • M. Yazback,
    • Hang Yu,
    • Haocun Yu,
    • M. Yvert,
    • A. Zadrożny,
    • M. Zanolin,
    • T. Zelenova,
    • J.-P. Zendri,
    • M. Zevin,
    • L. Zhang,
    • M. Zhang,
    • T. Zhang,
    • Y.-H. Zhang,
    • C. Zhao,
    • M. Zhou,
    • Z. Zhou,
    • S. J. Zhu,
    • X. J. Zhu,
    • A. B. Zimmerman,
    • M. E. Zucker &
    • J. Zweizig
  2. The 1M2H Collaboration

    • R. J. Foley,
    • D. A. Coulter,
    • M. R. Drout,
    • D. Kasen,
    • C. D. Kilpatrick,
    • B. F. Madore,
    • A. Murguia-Berthier,
    • Y.-C. Pan,
    • A. L. Piro,
    • J. X. Prochaska,
    • E. Ramirez-Ruiz,
    • A. Rest,
    • C. Rojas-Bravo,
    • B. J. Shappee,
    • M. R. Siebert,
    • J. D. Simon &
    • N. Ulloa
  3. The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration

    • J. Annis,
    • M. Soares-Santos,
    • D. Brout,
    • D. Scolnic,
    • H. T. Diehl,
    • J. Frieman,
    • E. Berger,
    • K. D. Alexander,
    • S. Allam,
    • E. Balbinot,
    • P. Blanchard,
    • R. E. Butler,
    • R. Chornock,
    • E. R. Cook,
    • P. Cowperthwaite,
    • A. Drlica-Wagner,
    • M. R. Drout,
    • F. Durret,
    • T. Eftekhari,
    • D. A. Finley,
    • W. Fong,
    • C. L. Fryer,
    • J. García-Bellido,
    • M. S. S. Gill,
    • R. A. Gruendl,
    • C. Hanna,
    • W. Hartley,
    • K. Herner,
    • D. Huterer,
    • D. Kasen,
    • R. Kessler,
    • T. S. Li,
    • H. Lin,
    • P. A. A. Lopes,
    • A. C. C. Lourenço,
    • R. Margutti,
    • J. Marriner,
    • J. L. Marshall,
    • T. Matheson,
    • G. E. Medina,
    • B. D. Metzger,
    • R. R. Muñoz,
    • J. Muir,
    • M. Nicholl,
    • P. Nugent,
    • A. Palmese,
    • F. Paz-Chinchón,
    • E. Quataert,
    • M. Sako,
    • M. Sauseda,
    • D. J. Schlegel,
    • L. F. Secco,
    • N. Smith,
    • F. Sobreira,
    • A. Stebbins,
    • V. A. Villar,
    • A. K. Vivas,
    • W. Wester,
    • P. K. G. Williams,
    • B. Yanny,
    • A. Zenteno,
    • T. M. C. Abbott,
    • F. B. Abdalla,
    • K. Bechtol,
    • A. Benoit-Lévy,
    • E. Bertin,
    • S. L. Bridle,
    • D. Brooks,
    • E. Buckley-Geer,
    • D. L. Burke,
    • A. Carnero Rosell,
    • M. Carrasco Kind,
    • J. Carretero,
    • F. J. Castander,
    • C. E. Cunha,
    • C. B. D’Andrea,
    • L. N. da Costa,
    • C. Davis,
    • D. L. DePoy,
    • S. Desai,
    • J. P. Dietrich,
    • J. Estrada,
    • E. Fernandez,
    • B. Flaugher,
    • P. Fosalba,
    • E. Gaztanaga,
    • D. W. Gerdes,
    • T. Giannantonio,
    • D. A. Goldstein,
    • D. Gruen,
    • G. Gutierrez,
    • W. G. Hartley,
    • K. Honscheid,
    • B. Jain,
    • D. J. James,
    • T. Jeltema,
    • M. W. G. Johnson,
    • S. Kent,
    • E. Krause,
    • R. Kron,
    • K. Kuehn,
    • S. Kuhlmann,
    • N. Kuropatkin,
    • O. Lahav,
    • M. Lima,
    • M. A. G. Maia,
    • M. March,
    • C. J. Miller,
    • R. Miquel,
    • E. Neilsen,
    • B. Nord,
    • R. L. C. Ogando,
    • A. A. Plazas,
    • A. K. Romer,
    • A. Roodman,
    • E. S. Rykoff,
    • E. Sanchez,
    • V. Scarpine,
    • M. Schubnell,
    • I. Sevilla-Noarbe,
    • M. Smith,
    • R. C. Smith,
    • E. Suchyta,
    • G. Tarle,
    • D. Thomas,
    • R. C. Thomas,
    • M. A. Troxel,
    • D. L. Tucker,
    • V. Vikram,
    • A. R. Walker,
    • J. Weller &
    • Y. Zhang
  4. The DLT40 Collaboration

    • J. B. Haislip,
    • V. V. Kouprianov,
    • D. E. Reichart,
    • L. Tartaglia,
    • D. J. Sand,
    • S. Valenti &
    • S. Yang
  5. The Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration

    • Iair Arcavi,
    • Griffin Hosseinzadeh,
    • D. Andrew Howell,
    • Curtis McCully,
    • Dovi Poznanski &
    • Sergiy Vasylyev
  6. The VINROUGE Collaboration

    • N. R. Tanvir,
    • A. J. Levan,
    • J. Hjorth,
    • Z. Cano,
    • C. Copperwheat,
    • A. de Ugarte-Postigo,
    • P. A. Evans,
    • J. P. U. Fynbo,
    • C. González-Fernández,
    • J. Greiner,
    • M. Irwin,
    • J. Lyman,
    • I. Mandel,
    • R. McMahon,
    • B. Milvang-Jensen,
    • P. O’Brien,
    • J. P. Osborne,
    • D. A. Perley,
    • E. Pian,
    • E. Palazzi,
    • E. Rol,
    • S. Rosetti,
    • S. Rosswog,
    • A. Rowlinson,
    • S. Schulze,
    • D. T. H. Steeghs,
    • C. C. Thöne,
    • K. Ulaczyk,
    • D. Watson &
    • K. Wiersema
  7. The MASTER Collaboration

    • V. M. Lipunov,
    • E. Gorbovskoy,
    • V. G. Kornilov,
    • N. Tyurina,
    • P. Balanutsa,
    • D. Vlasenko,
    • I. Gorbunov,
    • R. Podesta,
    • H. Levato,
    • C. Saffe,
    • D. A. H. Buckley,
    • N. M. Budnev,
    • O. Gress,
    • V. Yurkov,
    • R. Rebolo &
    • M. Serra-Ricart

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    Comments

    1. Report this comment #70849

      Xinhang Shen said:

      Please be aware that the theory LIGO uses to make its calculations is completely wrong!

      Einstein's relativity theory has already been disproved both logically and experimentally (see "Challenge to the special theory of relativity", March 1, 2016 on Physics Essays and a press release "Special Theory of Relativity Has Been Disproved Theoretically" on Eurekalert website: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/ngpi-tst030116.php ). The problem of Einstein's relativity is that it has redefined time and space through Lorentz Transformation. The newly defined time is no longer the physical time measured with physical clocks, which can be easily demonstrated by the following thought experiment of candle clocks:

      There are a series of vertically standing candles with the same burning rate and moving at different constant horizontal velocities in an inertial reference frame of (x, y, z, t) where x, y, z, t are relativistic positions and time. At any moment t of relativistic time, all candles have the same height H in the reference frame of (x, y, z, t) and the height has been calibrated to physical time as physical clocks. Therefore, we have the simultaneous events of the observation measured in both relativistic time and physical time in the frame of (x, y, z, t): (Candle1, x1, y1, H, t), (candle2, x2, y2, H, t), ?, (CandleN, xN, yN, H, t). When these events are observed on anther horizontally moving inertial reference frame (x', y', z', t'), according to special relativity, these events in the reference frame of (x', y', z', t') can be obtained through Lorentz Transformation: (Candle1, x'1, y'1, H, t'1), (Candle2, x'2, y'2, H, t'2), ? , (CandleN, x'N, y'N, H, t'N) where t'1, t'2, ?, and t'N are relativistic times of the events in the frame of (x', y', z', t'). It is seen that these events have different relativistic times after Lorentz Transformation in the frame of (x', y', z', t'), i.e., they are no longer simultaneous measured with relativistic time in the frame of (x', y', z', t'), but the heights of the candles remain the same because the vertical heights here do not experience any Lorentz contraction. Since the heights of the candles are the measures of the physical time, we can see these events still have the same physical time, i.e., they are still simultaneous measured with the physical time. Therefore, the physical time is invariant of inertial reference frames, which is different from relativistic time. As relativistic time is no longer the physical time we measure with physical devices, the des cription of special relativity is irrelevant to the physical world.

      Now let's have a look at the symmetric twin paradox. Two twins made separate space travels in the same velocity and acceleration relative to the earth all the time during their entire trips but in opposite directions. According to special relativity, each twin should find the other twin?s clock ticking more slowly than his own clock during the entire trip due to the relative velocity between them because acceleration did not have any effect on kinematic time dilation in special relativity. But when they came back to the earth, they found their clocks had exact the same time because of symmetry. Thus, there is a contradiction which has disproved special relativity. This thought experiment demonstrates that relativistic time is not our physical time and can never be materialized on physical clocks.

      Now let's look at clocks on the GPS satellites which is thought as one of the strong evidences of Einstein's relativity. Many physicists claim that clocks on the GPS satellites are corrected according to both special relativity and general relativity. This is not true because the corrections of the atomic clocks on the GPS satellites are absolute changes of the clocks (i.e. the same observed in all reference frames), none of which is relative to a specific observer as claimed by special relativity. After all corrections, the clocks are synchronized not only relative to the ground clocks but also relative to each other, i.e., time is absolute and special relativity is wrong.

      This is a fact as shown on Wikipedia. But some people still argue that the clocks on the GPS satellites are only synchronized in the earth centered inertial reference frame, and are not synchronized in the reference frames of the GPS satellites. If it were true, then the time difference between a clock on a GPS satellite and a clock on the ground observed in the satellite reference frame would monotonically grow due to their relative velocity while the same clocks observed on the earth centered reference frame were still synchronized. If you corrected the clock on the satellite when the difference became significant, the correction would break the synchronization of the clocks observed in the earth centered frame. That is, there is no way to make such a correction without breaking the synchronization of the clocks observed in the earth centered frame. Therefore, it is wrong to think that the clocks are not synchronized in the satellite frame.

      Hefele-Keating experiment is also considered as another evidence of relativistic effects. It is clear that all the differences of the clocks after flights in Hefele-Keating experiment were absolute (i.e., they were the same no matter whether you observe them on the earth, on the moon or on the space station). But according to relativity, if the clocks were observed on the earth, the two clocks after flights had experienced the equivalent paths of same velocity and same distance in same elevation, and thus should generate the same kinematic time dilation and the same gravitational time dilation, directly contradicting the experimental result. Therefore, the differences of the clocks were nothing to do with the velocities relative to each other or relative to the earth as claimed by relativists, but were the result of the velocities relative to one medium which seems fully dragged by the earth on its surface but partially dragged on the altitude of the airplanes. It is wrong to interpret the differences of the displayed times of the clocks as the results of relativistic effects.

      Experiments show that electrons will emit photons when they are "moving", but ?moving? is relative. All electrons on the earth can be considered "moving" when you observe them on a rocket. According to special relativity, you should see them emit photons. Why in a rocket frame don't you see the electrons emit photons? It is because special relativity is wrong. It is not the velocity relative to the observer which makes an electron emit photons, but it is the velocity relative to ?something? makes an electron emit photons. This ?something? is aether, the existence of which has been proved in the above paper. Photons are waves of aether which is a compressible viscous fluid filling up the entire visible part of the universe, though its viscosity is very very small. It is the velocity relative to aether makes an electron emit photons, just as a boat on a water generates waves only when it moves relative to the water.

      The increase of the lives of muons in particle accelerators or going through the atmosphere are the effects of aether caused by their velocities relative to aether, which are absolute changes and the same observed in all reference frames, nothing to do with relativity.

      All so-called proofs of relativistic effects are just misinterpretations of experiments and observations without exception, and all what relativity describes is irrelevant to physical phenomena, including the speed of light which in special relativity is constant in all inertial reference frames, but which in real physical world still follows Newton's velocity addition formula (see the paper).

      That is, time is absolute and space is 3D Euclidean. There is nothing called spacetime continuum in nature, not to mention the ripples of spacetime.

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