News & Views | Published:


Powered and controlled T-cell production

Nature Biomedical Engineeringvolume 2pages148150 (2018) | Download Citation

T cells can be efficiently and controllably expanded for adoptive cell therapy in a culture system consisting of lipid bilayers bearing membrane-bound cues for the stimulation of T-cell receptors and of supporting silica microrods that release a T-cell proliferation factor.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Carrel, A. & Burrows, M. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 55, 1379–1381 (1910).

  2. 2.

    Harrison, R. G., Greenman, M. J., Mall, F. P. & Jackson, C. M. Anatom. Rec. 1, 116–128 (1907).

  3. 3.

    Fesnak, A. D., June, C. H. & Levine, B. L. Nat. Rev. Cancer 16, 566–581 (2016).

  4. 4.

    Cheung, A. S., Zhang, D. K. Y., Koshy, S. T. & Mooney, D. J. Nat. Biotechnol. (2018).

  5. 5.

    Levine, B. L. et al. J. Hematother. 7, 437–448 (1998).

  6. 6.

    Kevlahan, S. H., Ball, A., Qin, G., Wells, S. B. & Jesuraj, N. J. Methods and compositions for activation or expansion of T lymphocytes. US patent 9,790,467 (Google Patents, 2017).

  7. 7.

    Suhoski, M. M. et al. Mol. Ther. 15, 981–988 (2007).

  8. 8.

    Shibuya, T. Y. et al. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head. Neck Surg. 125, 1229–1234 (1999).

  9. 9.

    Geppert, T. D. & Lipsky, P. E. J. Immunol. 138, 1660–1666 (1987).

  10. 10.

    Ma, Z., Discher, D. E. & Finkel, T. H. Front. Immunol. 3, 217 (2012).

  11. 11.

    Comrie, W. A., Li, S., Boyle, S. & Burkhardt, J. K. J. Cell Biol. 208, 457–473 (2015).

  12. 12.

    Bashour, K. T. et al. Mol. Cell Biol. 34, 955–964 (2014).

  13. 13.

    O’Connor, R. S. et al. J. Immunol. 189, 1330–1339 (2012).

  14. 14.

    Kim, J. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 64–72 (2015).

  15. 15.

    Levine, B. L. Cancer Gene Ther. 22, 79–84 (2015).

Download references

Author information


  1. Center for Cellular Immunotherapies and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    • Michael C. Milone
    •  & Bruce L. Levine


  1. Search for Michael C. Milone in:

  2. Search for Bruce L. Levine in:

Competing interests

M.C.M. and B.L.L. have commercial research grants from Novartis Pharmaceuticals, have ownership interest in intellectual property and patents held by the University of Pennsylvania, and are co-founders of Tycho Therapeutics (M.C.M.) and Tmunity Therapeutics (B.L.L.). These relationships are managed in accordance with University of Pennsylvania policies and oversight.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bruce L. Levine.

About this article

Publication history



Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing