Article

Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device

  • Nature Communications 4, Article number: 1356 (2013)
  • doi:10.1038/ncomms2349
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Abstract

Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic devices is essential for many optical information processing applications to reach a regime beyond what can be classically simulated, and integrated photonics has emerged as a leading platform for achieving this. Here we demonstrate three-photon quantum operation of an integrated device containing three coupled interferometers, eight spatial modes and many classical and nonclassical interferences. This represents a critical advance over previous complexities and the first on-chip nonclassical interference with more than two photonic inputs. We introduce a new scheme to verify quantum behaviour, using classically characterised device elements and hierarchies of photon correlation functions. We accurately predict the device’s quantum behaviour and show operation inconsistent with both classical and bi-separable quantum models. Such methods for verifying multiphoton quantum behaviour are vital for achieving increased circuit complexity. Our experiment paves the way for the next generation of integrated photonic quantum simulation and computing devices.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the EPSRC (EP/C51933/01, EP/J008052/1 and EP/C013956/1), the EC project Q-ESSENCE (248095), the Royal Society, the AFOSR EOARD, The Australian Research Council’s Federation Fellow program (FF0668810), Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems (CE110001013) and the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (CE110001027). J.B.S. acknowledges support from the United States Air Force Institute of Technology. X.-M.J. and N.K.L. are supported by EC Marie Curie Fellowships (PIIF-GA-2011-300820 and PIEF-GA-2010-275103). M.B. is supported by a FASTQUAST ITN Marie Curie fellowship.

Author information

Author notes

    • Benjamin J. Metcalf
    •  & Nicholas Thomas-Peter

    These authors contributed equally to this work

Affiliations

  1. Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK

    • Benjamin J. Metcalf
    • , Nicholas Thomas-Peter
    • , Justin B. Spring
    • , Peter C. Humphreys
    • , Xian-Min Jin
    • , Marco Barbieri
    • , W. Steven Kolthammer
    • , Brian J. Smith
    •  & Ian A. Walmsley
  2. Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

    • Dmytro Kundys
    • , James C. Gates
    •  & Peter G.R. Smith
  3. Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems and Centre for Quantum Computer and Communication Technology, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    • Matthew A. Broome
  4. Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China

    • Xian-Min Jin
  5. Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, London TW20 0EX, UK

    • Nathan K. Langford

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Contributions

N.T.-P., B.J.M., J.B.S., N.K.L. and I.A.W. all contributed to designing and setting up the experiment. B.J.M. and N.T.-P. performed the experiment. J.B.S. designed the FPGA electronics and helped with data taking. D.K. and J.C.G. fabricated the waveguide device. M.A.B., B.J.M, N.T.-P. and J.B.S. contributed to building the single-photon source. X.-M.J., W.S.K., M.B., P.H., N.K.L., J.B.S., B.J.M. and N.T.-P. all contributed to the analysis of the data. All authors contributed to writing the manuscript. B.J.S, P.G.R.S and I.A.W. conceived the work.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Benjamin J. Metcalf.

Supplementary information

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  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Figures S1-S6, Supplementary Table S1 and Supplementary Methods

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