Solution-state NMR

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vpr is a HIV-1 accessory virulence factor that also interacts with the human DNA repair protein hHR23A. Here, the authors present the structure of Vpr in complex with the C-terminal half of hHR23A comprising the XPC-binding and ubiquitin-associated domains, which reveals that hHR23A interacts with the DCAF1-binding and not the substrate-binding Vpr surface and further illustrates how Vpr acts as a versatile structural adapter that targets diverse DNA repair pathways.

    • In-Ja L. Byeon
    • , Guillermo Calero
    •  & Angela M. Gronenborn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from misfolding-prone AAT variants. Here the authors show that AAT forms co-translational folding intermediates on the ribosome that persist upon release and determine its folding fate. They show too that the ribosome can also modulate misfolding-prone AAT intermediates during their synthesis.

    • Elena Plessa
    • , Lien P. Chu
    •  & Lisa D. Cabrita
  • Article
    | Open Access

    NaK is a bacterial non-selective cation channel. Here, the authors use solution NMR to show that selectivity filter (SF) in NaK is dynamic, with structural differences between the Na+ and K + -bound states. The conformation of the SF is communicated to the pore-lining helices similarly as in the K + -selective channels.

    • Adam Lewis
    • , Vilius Kurauskas
    •  & Katherine Henzler-Wildman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Both ubiquitin and NEDD8 can be phosphorylated, but the biological role of NEDD8 phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, the authors identify similarities and differences of ubiquitin and NEDD8 phosphorylation, showing that phosphorylated NEDD8 has a distinct interactome and regulates HSP70 proteins.

    • Katrin Stuber
    • , Tobias Schneider
    •  & Martin Scheffner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    m6A RNA post-transcriptional modification changes RNA hybridization kinetics. Here the authors show that the methylamino group can adopt syn-conformation pairing with uridine with a mismatch-like conformation in RNA duplex. They also develop a quantitative model that predicts how m6A affects the kinetics of hybridization.

    • Bei Liu
    • , Honglue Shi
    •  & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Translational regulation by riboswitches is an important mechanism for the modulation of gene expression in bacteria. Here the authors show that the ligand-induced allosteric switch in the adenine-sensing riboswitch from V. vulnificus is insufficient and leads only to a partial opening of the ribosome binding site and requires interaction with 30S-bound ribosomal protein S1, which acts as an RNA chaperone.

    • Vanessa de Jesus
    • , Nusrat S. Qureshi
    •  & Boris Fürtig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nuclear spin polarization and relaxation can be studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here the authors demonstrate a combination of fast-field cycling and optical magnetometry techniques, to realize a NMR sensor that operates in the region of very low frequency and high relaxation rate.

    • Sven Bodenstedt
    • , Morgan W. Mitchell
    •  & Michael C. D. Tayler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The most frequent cause of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) are hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene that are translated into five dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins. Here, the authors show that proline/arginine (PR) DPRs inhibit the prolyl isomerase PPIA and reveal the molecular mechanism of the impaired protein folding activity of PPIA by performing NMR measurements and determining a PR DPR bound PPIA crystal structure.

    • Maria Babu
    • , Filippo Favretto
    •  & Markus Zweckstetter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    AtEH/Pan1 proteins contain two N-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domains and are subunits of the endocytic TPLATE complex present in plants. Here, the authors combine X-ray crystallography, NMR and MD simulations with biochemical and in planta analysis to characterize the two AtEH1/Pan1 EH domains and reveal their structural differences and complementary functional roles.

    • Klaas Yperman
    • , Anna C. Papageorgiou
    •  & Daniel Van Damme
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The allosteric regulation of the bienzyme complex imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (HisFH) remains to be elucidated. Here, the authors provide structural insights into the dynamic allosteric mechanism by which ligand binding to the cyclase and glutaminase active sites of HisFH regulate enzyme activation.

    • Jan Philip Wurm
    • , Sihyun Sung
    •  & Remco Sprangers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Buried charged networks in proteins are often important for their biological functionality and are believed to destabilise the protein fold. Here, the authors combine computational design, MD simulations, biophysical experiments, NMR and X-ray crystallography to design and characterise artificial 4α-helical proteins with buried charged elements. They analyse their conformational landscapes and observe that the ion-pairs are stabilised by amphiphilic residues that electrostatically shield the charged motif, which increases structural stability.

    • Mona Baumgart
    • , Michael Röpke
    •  & Ville R. I. Kaila
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cooperation between the ULK complex and autophagy receptors mediates targeting cargoes to autophagosomes. Here, the authors show that interactions of ULK subunit FIP200 with autophagy receptors CCPG1 and Optineurin can be regulated by phosphorylation, suggesting a general binding mode shared by autophagy receptors.

    • Zixuan Zhou
    • , Jianping Liu
    •  & Lifeng Pan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    p23 is a co-chaperone of Hsp90 but its mode of action is mechanistically not well understood. Here, the authors combine in vitro and yeast in vivo assays, biochemical measurements and NMR experiments to characterize p23 and identify two conserved helical elements in the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail of p23 that together with the folded domain of p23 regulate the Hsp90 ATPase activity and affect the binding and maturation of Hsp90 clients.

    • Maximilian M. Biebl
    • , Abraham Lopez
    •  & Johannes Buchner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors present Methyl Assignments Using Satisfiability (MAUS), a method for the assignment of methyl groups using raw NOE data. They use eight proteins in the 10–45 kDa size range as test cases and show that MAUS yields 100% accurate assignments at high completeness levels.

    • Santrupti Nerli
    • , Viviane S. De Paula
    •  & Nikolaos G. Sgourakis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The E2-like enzyme human Atg3 catalyses the transfer of ubiquitin-like mammalian LC3 to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine during autophagosome formation. Here, the authors combine NMR measurements with in vitro biochemical and in vivo cellular assays and show that the N-terminal conserved region of human Atg3 communicates information from the curvature-sensing domain to its active site.

    • Yansheng Ye
    • , Erin R. Tyndall
    •  & Fang Tian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors present a method for calculating the accuracy of an NMR structure, where flexibility from backbone chemical shifts is compared to structural flexibility predicted using rigidity theory. The authors validate their method and use it to compare the accuracy of NMR and X-ray structures.

    • Nicholas J. Fowler
    • , Adnan Sljoka
    •  & Mike P. Williamson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52 kDa serum glycoprotein, the misfolding and polymerisation of which is associated with COPD and liver disease. Here the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution multidimensional solution-state NMR spectroscopy to characterise the structure and dynamics in solution of Z AAT purified directly from clinical patients.

    • Alistair M. Jagger
    • , Christopher A. Waudby
    •  & David A. Lomas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a peptidylprolyl isomerase that also has chaperone activity and interacts with the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein (aSyn). Here, the authors combine NMR measurements and biochemical experiments to characterise the interplay between the catalysis of proline isomerization and molecular chaperone activity of CypA and find that both activities have opposing effects on aSyn and further show that the that cis/trans isomerization outpowers the holding activity of CypA.

    • Filippo Favretto
    • , David Flores
    •  & Markus Zweckstetter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The SARS-CoV-2 viral genome is encapsulated by the nucleocapsid protein (NSARS-CoV-2) that is essential for viral replication. Here, the authors show that RNA induces liquid-liquid phase separation of NSARS-CoV-2 and how NSARS-CoV-2 phosphorylation modulates RNA-binding and phase separation and that these RNA/NSARS-CoV-2-droplets recruit and concentrate the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex in vitro, which would enable high initiation and elongation rates during viral transcription.

    • Adriana Savastano
    • , Alain Ibáñez de Opakua
    •  & Markus Zweckstetter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    As protein synthesis takes place, newly synthesized polypeptide chain passes through the ribosomal exit tunnel, which can accommodate up to 70 residues in the case of a helical peptide. Here the authors show that oxidation of cysteine residues in the nascent chain can occur within the ribosome exit tunnel, where sufficient space exists for the formation of disulfide bonds.

    • Linda Schulte
    • , Jiafei Mao
    •  & Harald Schwalbe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The structure and dynamics of large proteins and complexes can be studied by methyl-NMR but resonance assignment is still challenging. Here, the authors present a NMR method that leverages optimal control pulse design to unambiguously distinguish between Leu and Val using a simple 2D HMQC experiment and they apply it to several proteins including Cas9, interleukin, and human translation initiation factor eIF4a.

    • Soumya P. Behera
    • , Abhinav Dubey
    •  & Haribabu Arthanari
  • Article
    | Open Access

    β-phosphoglucomutase (βPGM) from Lactococcus lactis is a phosphoryl transfer enzyme required for catabolism of trehalose and maltose. Coupled analyses of multiple βPGM structures and enzymatic activity lead to the proposal of allomorphy — a post-translational mechanism controlling enzyme activity.

    • Henry P. Wood
    • , F. Aaron Cruz-Navarrete
    •  & Jonathan P. Waltho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Determining dynamic ensembles of biomolecules is still challenging. Here the authors present an approach for rapid RNA ensemble determination that combines RNA structure prediction tools and NMR residual dipolar coupling data and use it to determine atomistic ensemble models for a variety of RNAs.

    • Honglue Shi
    • , Atul Rangadurai
    •  & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors present an approach that enhances the sensitivity of basic 2D biomolecular NMR experiments like NOESY and TOCSY, when carried out in polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. This method combines principles associated to quantum Anti-Zeno Effects and advanced data acquisition methods based on Hadamard multiplexing.

    • Mihajlo Novakovic
    • , Ēriks Kupče
    •  & Lucio Frydman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Potassium ion channels control K+ permeation across cell membranes and mutations that cause cardiovascular and neural diseases are known. Here, the authors perform NMR measurements with the prototypical K+ channel from Streptomyces lividans, KcsA and characterise the effects of disease causing mutations on the conformational dynamics of K+ channels in a physiological solution environment.

    • Yuta Iwahashi
    • , Yuki Toyama
    •  & Ichio Shimada
  • Article
    | Open Access

    VARP is bound to endosomes and functions as a protein:protein interaction platform. Here, the authors present the NMR structure of the complex between the retromer subunit VPS29 and a VARP Zn-fingernail microdomain that is structurally distinct from Zn-fingers and further show that mutations, which abolish VPS29:VARP binding, inhibit trafficking from endosomes to the cell surface.

    • Harriet Crawley-Snowdon
    • , Ji-Chun Yang
    •  & David J. Owen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor and vaccine formulations against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) contain O-acetylated CPS. Here, the authors provide mechanistic insights into CPS O-acetylation in NmA by determining the crystal structure of the O-acetyltransferase CsaC and NMR measurements further reveal that the CsaC-mediated reaction is regioselective for O3 and that the O4 modification results from spontaneous O-acetyl migration.

    • Timm Fiebig
    • , Johannes T. Cramer
    •  & Martina Mühlenhoff
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Determination of 3D molecular structures remains challenging for natural products or organic compounds available in minute amounts. Here, the authors determine the structure of complex molecules, including few micrograms of briarane B-3 isolated from Briareum asbestinums, through measurement of 1H residual chemical shift anisotropy.

    • Nilamoni Nath
    • , Juan Carlos Fuentes-Monteverde
    •  & Christian Griesinger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The TRPV1 ion channel is a heat-sensing receptor that is also activated by vanilloid compounds, but the molecular underpinnings of thermosensing have remained elusive. Here authors use in solution NMR on the isolated human TRPV1 S1-S4 domain and show that this domain undergoes a non-denaturing temperature-dependent transition with a high thermosensitivity.

    • Minjoo Kim
    • , Nicholas J. Sisco
    •  & Wade D. Van Horn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Human Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression and are important drug targets. Here, the authors combine NMR measurements, enzymatic assays and molecular dynamics simulations and show that HDAC8 samples a catalytically active and an inactive state and further demonstrate that mutations and ligand binding alter the populations of the two states, which is of interest for inhibitor design.

    • Nicolas D. Werbeck
    • , Vaibhav Kumar Shukla
    •  & D. Flemming Hansen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Avian influenza polymerase undergoes host adaptation in order to efficiently replicate in human cells. Here, the authors use NMR spectroscopy and quantitative ensemble modelling to describe the highly dynamic assemblies formed by the human-adapted or avian-adapted C-terminal domains with the respective ANP32A host proteins.

    • Aldo R. Camacho-Zarco
    • , Sissy Kalayil
    •  & Martin Blackledge
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mitochondrial apoptosis is controlled by BCL2 family proteins, and the BH3-only proteins often act as sensors that transmit apoptotic signals. Here the authors show how the BH3-only proteins BMF and HRK can directly activate the BCL2 protein BAK and interact with BAK through an alternative binding groove.

    • Kaiqin Ye
    • , Wei X. Meng
    •  & Haiming Dai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analysis of exchange processes is time consuming by two-dimensional exchange NMR spectroscopy. Here the authors demonstrate a single-scan ultrafast Laplace NMR approach based on spatial encoding to measure molecular diffusion, with an increase by a factor six in the sensitivity per unit time.

    • Otto Mankinen
    • , Vladimir V. Zhivonitko
    •  & Ville-Veikko Telkki
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Phosphorylation of eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) controls their folding and regulates cap-dependent translation. Here, the authors show that phosphorylation of the C-terminal disordered region stabilizes the non-cooperatively folded 4E-BP domain to an eIF4E binding-incompatible state to control translation.

    • Jennifer E. Dawson
    • , Alaji Bah
    •  & Julie D. Forman-Kay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomer pores in the membrane of neurons has been proposed to explain neurotoxicity in Alzheimer´s disease. Here authors present the 3D- structure of an Aβ oligomer formed in a membrane mimicking environment and observe that Aβ tetramers and octamers inserted into lipid bilayers as well-defined pores.

    • Sonia Ciudad
    • , Eduard Puig
    •  & Natàlia Carulla
  • Article
    | Open Access

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates the fusion of viral and target cell membranes and is a major target for HIV vaccine development. Here, the authors determine the NMR structure of a bicelle incorporated Env segment comprising the transmembrane domain (TMD) and a portion of the cytoplasmic tail (CT), and show that the CT folds into membrane attached amphipathic helices that wrap around the TMD thereby forming a support baseplate for the rest of Env, and they also provide insights into the dynamic coupling across the TMD between the ectodomain and CT.

    • Alessandro Piai
    • , Qingshan Fu
    •  & James J. Chou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Galectin-3 consists of an unstructured N-terminal domain (NTD) and a structured carbohydrate-recognition domain and agglutinates neutrophils and glycosylated molecules in the extracellular milieu. Here the authors combine biophysical and biochemical experiments with NMR measurements and show that the galectin-3 NTD undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and agglutinates other molecules through this process.

    • Yi-Ping Chiu
    • , Yung-Chen Sun
    •  & Jie-rong Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The movement of cytoplasmic dynein on microtubule tracks is coordinated by the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) and the ATPase domain via a coiled-coil stalk. Here authors use NMR and cryo-EM and suggest that the communication between the ATPase-domain and MTBD is achieved by sliding of the stalk α-helix by a half-turn or one-turn.

    • Noritaka Nishida
    • , Yuta Komori
    •  & Masahide Kikkawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Structural studies of nuclear receptor transcription factors revealed that nearly all nuclear receptors share a conserved helix 12 dependent transcriptional activation mechanism. Here the authors present two crystal structures of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in an inverse agonist/corepressor-bound transcriptionally repressive conformation, where helix 12 is located within the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket instead, and discuss mechanistic implications.

    • Jinsai Shang
    • , Sarah A. Mosure
    •  & Douglas J. Kojetin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) that binds catecholamine ligands. Here the authors employ site-specific labelling and 19F NMR measurements to characterise the structural changes and dynamics in the cytoplasmic region of β1AR upon agonist stimulation and coupling to a Gs-protein-mimetic nanobody.

    • J. Niclas Frei
    • , Richard W. Broadhurst
    •  & Daniel Nietlispach
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In retroviruses, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the viral core. Here the authors combine cryo-electron microscopy with NMR and X-ray crystallography to examine the CA structure from the human endogenous retrovirus HML2 (HERV-K) and determine the structures of four Fullerene CA closed shells that reveal the molecular basis of capsid assembly.

    • Oliver Acton
    • , Tim Grant
    •  & Peter B. Rosenthal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF) is an endoplasmic reticulum protein of therapeutic interest because it promotes tissue repair in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Here the authors present the NMR structure of human MYDGF and attribute function to a set of residues conserved in MYDGFs but not the vanin base domain, which has a similar fold.

    • Valeriu Bortnov
    • , Marco Tonelli
    •  & Deane F. Mosher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) are characterized by the pathological accumulation of α-synuclein. Here the authors employ fluorescent probes, electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy to study the properties of α-synuclein aggregates that were amplified from patient brain extracts and observe a greater structural diversity among PD patients compared to MSA patients.

    • Timo Strohäker
    • , Byung Chul Jung
    •  & Markus Zweckstetter