Social sciences

  • Article |

    Analyses of COVID-19 infection rates show that non-pharmaceutical interventions achieved large, beneficial and measurable health outcomes in China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, France and the United States; these results may inform decisions on whether or when these interventions should be deployed, intensified or lifted.

    • Solomon Hsiang
    • , Daniel Allen
    • , Sébastien Annan-Phan
    • , Kendon Bell
    • , Ian Bolliger
    • , Trinetta Chong
    • , Hannah Druckenmiller
    • , Luna Yue Huang
    • , Andrew Hultgren
    • , Emma Krasovich
    • , Peiley Lau
    • , Jaecheol Lee
    • , Esther Rolf
    • , Jeanette Tseng
    •  & Tiffany Wu
  • Article |

    Lidar survey of the Maya lowlands uncovers the monumental site of Aguada Fénix, which dates to around 1000–800 bc and points to the role of communal construction in the development of Maya civilization.

    • Takeshi Inomata
    • , Daniela Triadan
    • , Verónica A. Vázquez López
    • , Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz
    • , Takayuki Omori
    • , María Belén Méndez Bauer
    • , Melina García Hernández
    • , Timothy Beach
    • , Clarissa Cagnato
    • , Kazuo Aoyama
    •  & Hiroo Nasu
  • Article |

    The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.

    • Rotem Botvinik-Nezer
    • , Felix Holzmeister
    • , Colin F. Camerer
    • , Anna Dreber
    • , Juergen Huber
    • , Magnus Johannesson
    • , Michael Kirchler
    • , Roni Iwanir
    • , Jeanette A. Mumford
    • , R. Alison Adcock
    • , Paolo Avesani
    • , Blazej M. Baczkowski
    • , Aahana Bajracharya
    • , Leah Bakst
    • , Sheryl Ball
    • , Marco Barilari
    • , Nadège Bault
    • , Derek Beaton
    • , Julia Beitner
    • , Roland G. Benoit
    • , Ruud M. W. J. Berkers
    • , Jamil P. Bhanji
    • , Bharat B. Biswal
    • , Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez
    • , Tiago Bortolini
    • , Katherine L. Bottenhorn
    • , Alexander Bowring
    • , Senne Braem
    • , Hayley R. Brooks
    • , Emily G. Brudner
    • , Cristian B. Calderon
    • , Julia A. Camilleri
    • , Jaime J. Castrellon
    • , Luca Cecchetti
    • , Edna C. Cieslik
    • , Zachary J. Cole
    • , Olivier Collignon
    • , Robert W. Cox
    • , William A. Cunningham
    • , Stefan Czoschke
    • , Kamalaker Dadi
    • , Charles P. Davis
    • , Alberto De Luca
    • , Mauricio R. Delgado
    • , Lysia Demetriou
    • , Jeffrey B. Dennison
    • , Xin Di
    • , Erin W. Dickie
    • , Ekaterina Dobryakova
    • , Claire L. Donnat
    • , Juergen Dukart
    • , Niall W. Duncan
    • , Joke Durnez
    • , Amr Eed
    • , Simon B. Eickhoff
    • , Andrew Erhart
    • , Laura Fontanesi
    • , G. Matthew Fricke
    • , Shiguang Fu
    • , Adriana Galván
    • , Remi Gau
    • , Sarah Genon
    • , Tristan Glatard
    • , Enrico Glerean
    • , Jelle J. Goeman
    • , Sergej A. E. Golowin
    • , Carlos González-García
    • , Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski
    • , Cheryl L. Grady
    • , Mikella A. Green
    • , João F. Guassi Moreira
    • , Olivia Guest
    • , Shabnam Hakimi
    • , J. Paul Hamilton
    • , Roeland Hancock
    • , Giacomo Handjaras
    • , Bronson B. Harry
    • , Colin Hawco
    • , Peer Herholz
    • , Gabrielle Herman
    • , Stephan Heunis
    • , Felix Hoffstaedter
    • , Jeremy Hogeveen
    • , Susan Holmes
    • , Chuan-Peng Hu
    • , Scott A. Huettel
    • , Matthew E. Hughes
    • , Vittorio Iacovella
    • , Alexandru D. Iordan
    • , Peder M. Isager
    • , Ayse I. Isik
    • , Andrew Jahn
    • , Matthew R. Johnson
    • , Tom Johnstone
    • , Michael J. E. Joseph
    • , Anthony C. Juliano
    • , Joseph W. Kable
    • , Michalis Kassinopoulos
    • , Cemal Koba
    • , Xiang-Zhen Kong
    • , Timothy R. Koscik
    • , Nuri Erkut Kucukboyaci
    • , Brice A. Kuhl
    • , Sebastian Kupek
    • , Angela R. Laird
    • , Claus Lamm
    • , Robert Langner
    • , Nina Lauharatanahirun
    • , Hongmi Lee
    • , Sangil Lee
    • , Alexander Leemans
    • , Andrea Leo
    • , Elise Lesage
    • , Flora Li
    • , Monica Y. C. Li
    • , Phui Cheng Lim
    • , Evan N. Lintz
    • , Schuyler W. Liphardt
    • , Annabel B. Losecaat Vermeer
    • , Bradley C. Love
    • , Michael L. Mack
    • , Norberto Malpica
    • , Theo Marins
    • , Camille Maumet
    • , Kelsey McDonald
    • , Joseph T. McGuire
    • , Helena Melero
    • , Adriana S. Méndez Leal
    • , Benjamin Meyer
    • , Kristin N. Meyer
    • , Glad Mihai
    • , Georgios D. Mitsis
    • , Jorge Moll
    • , Dylan M. Nielson
    • , Gustav Nilsonne
    • , Michael P. Notter
    • , Emanuele Olivetti
    • , Adrian I. Onicas
    • , Paolo Papale
    • , Kaustubh R. Patil
    • , Jonathan E. Peelle
    • , Alexandre Pérez
    • , Doris Pischedda
    • , Jean-Baptiste Poline
    • , Yanina Prystauka
    • , Shruti Ray
    • , Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz
    • , Richard C. Reynolds
    • , Emiliano Ricciardi
    • , Jenny R. Rieck
    • , Anais M. Rodriguez-Thompson
    • , Anthony Romyn
    • , Taylor Salo
    • , Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin
    • , Emilio Sanz-Morales
    • , Margaret L. Schlichting
    • , Douglas H. Schultz
    • , Qiang Shen
    • , Margaret A. Sheridan
    • , Jennifer A. Silvers
    • , Kenny Skagerlund
    • , Alec Smith
    • , David V. Smith
    • , Peter Sokol-Hessner
    • , Simon R. Steinkamp
    • , Sarah M. Tashjian
    • , Bertrand Thirion
    • , John N. Thorp
    • , Gustav Tinghög
    • , Loreen Tisdall
    • , Steven H. Tompson
    • , Claudio Toro-Serey
    • , Juan Jesus Torre Tresols
    • , Leonardo Tozzi
    • , Vuong Truong
    • , Luca Turella
    • , Anna E. van ‘t Veer
    • , Tom Verguts
    • , Jean M. Vettel
    • , Sagana Vijayarajah
    • , Khoi Vo
    • , Matthew B. Wall
    • , Wouter D. Weeda
    • , Susanne Weis
    • , David J. White
    • , David Wisniewski
    • , Alba Xifra-Porxas
    • , Emily A. Yearling
    • , Sangsuk Yoon
    • , Rui Yuan
    • , Kenneth S. L. Yuen
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Xu Zhang
    • , Joshua E. Zosky
    • , Thomas E. Nichols
    • , Russell A. Poldrack
    •  & Tom Schonberg
  • Article |

    Modelling of population flows in China enables the forecasting of the distribution of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and the identification of areas at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission at an early stage.

    • Jayson S. Jia
    • , Xin Lu
    • , Yun Yuan
    • , Ge Xu
    • , Jianmin Jia
    •  & Nicholas A. Christakis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Great progress toward the education-related SDG targets has been made; however, global estimates of within-country distributions of education reveal gender disparities and high levels of total inequality in many parts of the world.

    • Joseph Friedman
    • , Hunter York
    • , Nicholas Graetz
    • , Lauren Woyczynski
    • , Joanna Whisnant
    • , Simon I. Hay
    •  & Emmanuela Gakidou
  • Article |

    Archaeological evidence that anthropic landscape changes and crop cultivation in southwestern Amazonia began about 10,000–11,000 years ago confirms that the region is a centre of early plant domestication.

    • Umberto Lombardo
    • , José Iriarte
    • , Lautaro Hilbert
    • , Javier Ruiz-Pérez
    • , José M. Capriles
    •  & Heinz Veit
  • Article |

    Using lipid residues absorbed in potsherds, the ages of pottery from various archaeological sites are determined and validated using sites for which the dates are well known from other methods.

    • Emmanuelle Casanova
    • , Timothy D. J. Knowles
    • , Alex Bayliss
    • , Julie Dunne
    • , Marek Z. Barański
    • , Anthony Denaire
    • , Philippe Lefranc
    • , Savino di Lernia
    • , Mélanie Roffet-Salque
    • , Jessica Smyth
    • , Alistair Barclay
    • , Toby Gillard
    • , Erich Claßen
    • , Bryony Coles
    • , Michael Ilett
    • , Christian Jeunesse
    • , Marta Krueger
    • , Arkadiusz Marciniak
    • , Steve Minnitt
    • , Rocco Rotunno
    • , Pieter van de Velde
    • , Ivo van Wijk
    • , Jonathan Cotton
    • , Andy Daykin
    •  & Richard P. Evershed
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-resolution subnational mapping of child growth failure indicators for 105 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 shows that, despite considerable progress, substantial geographical inequalities still exist in some countries.

    • Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman
    • , Brandon V. Pickering
    • , Lauren E. Schaeffer
    • , Laurie B. Marczak
    • , Alice Lazzar-Atwood
    • , Michael L. Collison
    • , Nathaniel J. Henry
    • , Zegeye Abebe
    • , Abdu A. Adamu
    • , Victor Adekanmbi
    • , Keivan Ahmadi
    • , Olufemi Ajumobi
    • , Ayman Al-Eyadhy
    • , Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi
    • , Fares Alahdab
    • , Mehran Alijanzadeh
    • , Vahid Alipour
    • , Khalid Altirkawi
    • , Saeed Amini
    • , Catalina Liliana Andrei
    • , Carl Abelardo T. Antonio
    • , Jalal Arabloo
    • , Olatunde Aremu
    • , Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi
    • , Suleman Atique
    • , Marcel Ausloos
    • , Marco Avila
    • , Ashish Awasthi
    • , Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla
    • , Samad Azari
    • , Alaa Badawi
    • , Till Winfried Bärnighausen
    • , Quique Bassat
    • , Kaleab Baye
    • , Neeraj Bedi
    • , Bayu Begashaw Bekele
    • , Michelle L. Bell
    • , Natalia V. Bhattacharjee
    • , Krittika Bhattacharyya
    • , Suraj Bhattarai
    • , Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
    • , Belete Biadgo
    • , Boris Bikbov
    • , Andrey Nikolaevich Briko
    • , Gabrielle Britton
    • , Roy Burstein
    • , Zahid A. Butt
    • , Josip Car
    • , Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela
    • , Franz Castro
    • , Ester Cerin
    • , Michael G. Chipeta
    • , Dinh-Toi Chu
    • , Michael A. Cork
    • , Elizabeth A. Cromwell
    • , Lucía Cuevas-Nasu
    • , Lalit Dandona
    • , Rakhi Dandona
    • , Farah Daoud
    • , Rajat Das Gupta
    • , Nicole Davis Weaver
    • , Diego De Leo
    • , Jan-Walter De Neve
    • , Kebede Deribe
    • , Beruk Berhanu Desalegn
    • , Aniruddha Deshpande
    • , Melaku Desta
    • , Daniel Diaz
    • , Mesfin Tadese Dinberu
    • , David Teye Doku
    • , Manisha Dubey
    • , Andre R. Durães
    • , Laura Dwyer-Lindgren
    • , Lucas Earl
    • , Andem Effiong
    • , Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
    • , Maha El Tantawi
    • , Ziad El-Khatib
    • , Babak Eshrati
    • , Mohammad Fareed
    • , Andre Faro
    • , Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad
    • , Irina Filip
    • , Florian Fischer
    • , Nataliya A. Foigt
    • , Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
    • , Takeshi Fukumoto
    • , Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot
    • , Kebede Embaye Gezae
    • , Alireza Ghajar
    • , Paramjit Singh Gill
    • , Philimon N. Gona
    • , Sameer Vali Gopalani
    • , Ayman Grada
    • , Yuming Guo
    • , Arvin Haj-Mirzaian
    • , Arya Haj-Mirzaian
    • , Jason B. Hall
    • , Samer Hamidi
    • , Andualem Henok
    • , Bernardo Hernández Prado
    • , Mario Herrero
    • , Claudiu Herteliu
    • , Chi Linh Hoang
    • , Michael K. Hole
    • , Naznin Hossain
    • , Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
    • , Guoqing Hu
    • , Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
    • , Mihajlo Jakovljevic
    • , Ravi Prakash Jha
    • , Jost B. Jonas
    • , Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak
    • , Amaha Kahsay
    • , Tanuj Kanchan
    • , Manoochehr Karami
    • , Amir Kasaeian
    • , Yousef Saleh Khader
    • , Ejaz Ahmad Khan
    • , Mona M. Khater
    • , Yun Jin Kim
    • , Ruth W. Kimokoti
    • , Adnan Kisa
    • , Sonali Kochhar
    • , Soewarta Kosen
    • , Ai Koyanagi
    • , Kewal Krishan
    • , Barthelemy Kuate Defo
    • , G. Anil Kumar
    • , Manasi Kumar
    • , Sheetal D. Lad
    • , Faris Hasan Lami
    • , Paul H. Lee
    • , Aubrey J. Levine
    • , Shanshan Li
    • , Shai Linn
    • , Rakesh Lodha
    • , Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek
    • , Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek
    • , Marek Majdan
    • , Azeem Majeed
    • , Reza Malekzadeh
    • , Deborah Carvalho Malta
    • , Abdullah A. Mamun
    • , Mohammad Ali Mansournia
    • , Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo
    • , Anthony Masaka
    • , Benjamin Ballard Massenburg
    • , Benjamin K. Mayala
    • , Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez
    • , Mulugeta Melku
    • , Walter Mendoza
    • , George A. Mensah
    • , Tomasz Miazgowski
    • , Ted R. Miller
    • , G. K. Mini
    • , Erkin M. Mirrakhimov
    • , Babak Moazen
    • , Aso Mohammad Darwesh
    • , Shafiu Mohammed
    • , Farnam Mohebi
    • , Ali H. Mokdad
    • , Yoshan Moodley
    • , Ghobad Moradi
    • , Maziar Moradi-Lakeh
    • , Paula Moraga
    • , Shane Douglas Morrison
    • , Jonathan F. Mosser
    • , Seyyed Meysam Mousavi
    • , Ulrich Otto Mueller
    • , Christopher J. L. Murray
    • , Ghulam Mustafa
    • , Mehdi Naderi
    • , Mohsen Naghavi
    • , Farid Najafi
    • , Vinay Nangia
    • , Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe
    • , Ionut Negoi
    • , Josephine W. Ngunjiri
    • , Huong Lan Thi Nguyen
    • , Long Hoang Nguyen
    • , Son Hoang Nguyen
    • , Jing Nie
    • , Chukwudi A. Nnaji
    • , Jean Jacques Noubiap
    • , Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh
    • , Peter S. Nyasulu
    • , Felix Akpojene Ogbo
    • , Andrew T. Olagunju
    • , Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya
    • , Jacob Olusegun Olusanya
    • , Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo
    • , Stanislav S. Otstavnov
    • , Mahesh P. A.
    • , Adrian Pana
    • , Anamika Pandey
    • , Sanghamitra Pati
    • , Snehal T. Patil
    • , George C. Patton
    • , Norberto Perico
    • , David M. Pigott
    • , Meghdad Pirsaheb
    • , Ellen G. Piwoz
    • , Maarten J. Postma
    • , Akram Pourshams
    • , Swayam Prakash
    • , Hedley Quintana
    • , Amir Radfar
    • , Alireza Rafiei
    • , Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
    • , Rajesh Kumar Rai
    • , Fatemeh Rajati
    • , David Laith Rawaf
    • , Salman Rawaf
    • , Rahul Rawat
    • , Giuseppe Remuzzi
    • , Andre M. N. Renzaho
    • , Carlos Rios-González
    • , Leonardo Roever
    • , Jennifer M. Ross
    • , Ali Rostami
    • , Nafis Sadat
    • , Yahya Safari
    • , Mahdi Safdarian
    • , Amirhossein Sahebkar
    • , Nasir Salam
    • , Payman Salamati
    • , Yahya Salimi
    • , Hamideh Salimzadeh
    • , Abdallah M. Samy
    • , Benn Sartorius
    • , Brijesh Sathian
    • , Megan F. Schipp
    • , David C. Schwebel
    • , Anbissa Muleta Senbeta
    • , Sadaf G. Sepanlou
    • , Masood Ali Shaikh
    • , Teresa Shamah Levy
    • , Mohammadbagher Shamsi
    • , Kiomars Sharafi
    • , Rajesh Sharma
    • , Aziz Sheikh
    • , Apurba Shil
    • , Diego Augusto Santos Silva
    • , Jasvinder A. Singh
    • , Dhirendra Narain Sinha
    • , Moslem Soofi
    • , Agus Sudaryanto
    • , Mu’awiyyah Babale Sufiyan
    • , Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
    • , Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse
    • , Mohamad-Hani Temsah
    • , Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
    • , Zemenu Tadesse Tessema
    • , Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman
    • , Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone
    • , Bach Xuan Tran
    • , Khanh Bao Tran
    • , Irfan Ullah
    • , Olalekan A. Uthman
    • , Masoud Vaezghasemi
    • , Afsane Vaezi
    • , Pascual R. Valdez
    • , John Vanderheide
    • , Yousef Veisani
    • , Francesco S. Violante
    • , Vasily Vlassov
    • , Giang Thu Vu
    • , Linh Gia Vu
    • , Yasir Waheed
    • , Judd L. Walson
    • , Yafeng Wang
    • , Yuan-Pang Wang
    • , Elizabeth N. Wangia
    • , Andrea Werdecker
    • , Gelin Xu
    • , Tomohide Yamada
    • , Engida Yisma
    • , Naohiro Yonemoto
    • , Mustafa Z. Younis
    • , Mahmoud Yousefifard
    • , Chuanhua Yu
    • , Sojib Bin Zaman
    • , Mohammad Zamani
    • , Yunquan Zhang
    • , Nicholas J. Kassebaum
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017 reveal inequalities across countries as well as within populations.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Lauren Woyczynski
    • , Katherine F. Wilson
    • , Jason B. Hall
    • , Kalkidan Hassen Abate
    • , Foad Abd-Allah
    • , Oladimeji M. Adebayo
    • , Victor Adekanmbi
    • , Mahdi Afshari
    • , Olufemi Ajumobi
    • , Tomi Akinyemiju
    • , Fares Alahdab
    • , Ziyad Al-Aly
    • , Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde Rabanal
    • , Mehran Alijanzadeh
    • , Vahid Alipour
    • , Khalid Altirkawi
    • , Mohammadreza Amiresmaili
    • , Nahla Hamed Anber
    • , Catalina Liliana Andrei
    • , Mina Anjomshoa
    • , Carl Abelardo T. Antonio
    • , Jalal Arabloo
    • , Olatunde Aremu
    • , Krishna K. Aryal
    • , Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi
    • , Suleman Atique
    • , Marcel Ausloos
    • , Ashish Awasthi
    • , Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla
    • , Samad Azari
    • , Alaa Badawi
    • , Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub
    • , Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo
    • , Anthony Barnett
    • , Neeraj Bedi
    • , Derrick A. Bennett
    • , Natalia V. Bhattacharjee
    • , Krittika Bhattacharyya
    • , Suraj Bhattarai
    • , Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
    • , Ali Bijani
    • , Boris Bikbov
    • , Gabrielle Britton
    • , Roy Burstein
    • , Zahid A. Butt
    • , Rosario Cárdenas
    • , Félix Carvalho
    • , Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela
    • , Franz Castro
    • , Ester Cerin
    • , Jung-Chen Chang
    • , Michael L. Collison
    • , Cyrus Cooper
    • , Michael A. Cork
    • , Farah Daoud
    • , Rajat Das Gupta
    • , Nicole Davis Weaver
    • , Jan-Walter De Neve
    • , Kebede Deribe
    • , Beruk Berhanu Desalegn
    • , Aniruddha Deshpande
    • , Melaku Desta
    • , Meghnath Dhimal
    • , Daniel Diaz
    • , Mesfin Tadese Dinberu
    • , Shirin Djalalinia
    • , Manisha Dubey
    • , Eleonora Dubljanin
    • , Andre R. Durães
    • , Laura Dwyer-Lindgren
    • , Lucas Earl
    • , Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan
    • , Ziad El-Khatib
    • , Babak Eshrati
    • , Mahbobeh Faramarzi
    • , Mohammad Fareed
    • , Andre Faro
    • , Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad
    • , Eduarda Fernandes
    • , Irina Filip
    • , Florian Fischer
    • , Takeshi Fukumoto
    • , Jose A. García
    • , Paramjit Singh Gill
    • , Tiffany K. Gill
    • , Philimon N. Gona
    • , Sameer Vali Gopalani
    • , Ayman Grada
    • , Yuming Guo
    • , Rajeev Gupta
    • , Vipin Gupta
    • , Arvin Haj-Mirzaian
    • , Arya Haj-Mirzaian
    • , Randah R. Hamadeh
    • , Samer Hamidi
    • , Mehedi Hasan
    • , Hamid Yimam Hassen
    • , Delia Hendrie
    • , Andualem Henok
    • , Nathaniel J. Henry
    • , Bernardo Hernández Prado
    • , Claudiu Herteliu
    • , Michael K. Hole
    • , Naznin Hossain
    • , Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
    • , Guoqing Hu
    • , Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi
    • , Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani
    • , Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
    • , Neda Izadi
    • , Mihajlo Jakovljevic
    • , Ravi Prakash Jha
    • , John S. Ji
    • , Jost B. Jonas
    • , Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari
    • , Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak
    • , Tanuj Kanchan
    • , Amir Kasaeian
    • , Ali Kazemi Karyani
    • , Peter Njenga Keiyoro
    • , Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran
    • , Yousef Saleh Khader
    • , Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie
    • , Ejaz Ahmad Khan
    • , Mona M. Khater
    • , Aliasghar A. Kiadaliri
    • , Daniel N. Kiirithio
    • , Yun Jin Kim
    • , Ruth W. Kimokoti
    • , Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Adnan Kisa
    • , Soewarta Kosen
    • , Ai Koyanagi
    • , Kewal Krishan
    • , Barthelemy Kuate Defo
    • , Manasi Kumar
    • , Pushpendra Kumar
    • , Faris Hasan Lami
    • , Paul H. Lee
    • , Aubrey J. Levine
    • , Shanshan Li
    • , Yu Liao
    • , Lee-Ling Lim
    • , Stefan Listl
    • , Jaifred Christian F. Lopez
    • , Marek Majdan
    • , Reza Majdzadeh
    • , Azeem Majeed
    • , Reza Malekzadeh
    • , Mohammad Ali Mansournia
    • , Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo
    • , Anthony Masaka
    • , Benjamin Ballard Massenburg
    • , Benjamin K. Mayala
    • , Kala M. Mehta
    • , Walter Mendoza
    • , George A. Mensah
    • , Tuomo J. Meretoja
    • , Tomislav Mestrovic
    • , Ted R. Miller
    • , G. K. Mini
    • , Erkin M. Mirrakhimov
    • , Babak Moazen
    • , Dara K. Mohammad
    • , Aso Mohammad Darwesh
    • , Shafiu Mohammed
    • , Farnam Mohebi
    • , Ali H. Mokdad
    • , Lorenzo Monasta
    • , Yoshan Moodley
    • , Mahmood Moosazadeh
    • , Ghobad Moradi
    • , Maziar Moradi-Lakeh
    • , Paula Moraga
    • , Lidia Morawska
    • , Shane Douglas Morrison
    • , Jonathan F. Mosser
    • , Seyyed Meysam Mousavi
    • , Christopher J. L. Murray
    • , Ghulam Mustafa
    • , Azin Nahvijou
    • , Farid Najafi
    • , Vinay Nangia
    • , Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe
    • , Ionut Negoi
    • , Ruxandra Irina Negoi
    • , Josephine W. Ngunjiri
    • , Cuong Tat Nguyen
    • , Long Hoang Nguyen
    • , Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum
    • , Jean Jacques Noubiap
    • , Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh
    • , Peter S. Nyasulu
    • , Felix Akpojene Ogbo
    • , Andrew T. Olagunju
    • , Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya
    • , Jacob Olusegun Olusanya
    • , Obinna E. Onwujekwe
    • , Doris D. V. Ortega-Altamirano
    • , Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo
    • , Simon Øverland
    • , Mahesh P. A.
    • , Adrian Pana
    • , Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
    • , Sanghamitra Pati
    • , George C. Patton
    • , Norberto Perico
    • , David M. Pigott
    • , Meghdad Pirsaheb
    • , Maarten J. Postma
    • , Akram Pourshams
    • , Swayam Prakash
    • , Parul Puri
    • , Mostafa Qorbani
    • , Amir Radfar
    • , Fakher Rahim
    • , Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
    • , Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman
    • , Fatemeh Rajati
    • , Chhabi Lal Ranabhat
    • , David Laith Rawaf
    • , Salman Rawaf
    • , Robert C. Reiner Jr
    • , Giuseppe Remuzzi
    • , Andre M. N. Renzaho
    • , Satar Rezaei
    • , Aziz Rezapour
    • , Carlos Rios-González
    • , Leonardo Roever
    • , Luca Ronfani
    • , Gholamreza Roshandel
    • , Ali Rostami
    • , Enrico Rubagotti
    • , Nafis Sadat
    • , Ehsan Sadeghi
    • , Yahya Safari
    • , Rajesh Sagar
    • , Nasir Salam
    • , Payman Salamati
    • , Yahya Salimi
    • , Hamideh Salimzadeh
    • , Abdallah M. Samy
    • , Juan Sanabria
    • , Milena M. Santric Milicevic
    • , Benn Sartorius
    • , Brijesh Sathian
    • , Arundhati R. Sawant
    • , Lauren E. Schaeffer
    • , Megan F. Schipp
    • , David C. Schwebel
    • , Anbissa Muleta Senbeta
    • , Sadaf G. Sepanlou
    • , Masood Ali Shaikh
    • , Mehran Shams-Beyranvand
    • , Morteza Shamsizadeh
    • , Kiomars Sharafi
    • , Rajesh Sharma
    • , Jun She
    • , Aziz Sheikh
    • , Mika Shigematsu
    • , Soraya Siabani
    • , Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira
    • , Jasvinder A. Singh
    • , Dhirendra Narain Sinha
    • , Vegard Skirbekk
    • , Amber Sligar
    • , Badr Hasan Sobaih
    • , Moslem Soofi
    • , Joan B. Soriano
    • , Ireneous N. Soyiri
    • , Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy
    • , Agus Sudaryanto
    • , Mu’awiyyah Babale Sufiyan
    • , Ipsita Sutradhar
    • , PN Sylaja
    • , Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
    • , Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse
    • , Mohamad-Hani Temsah
    • , Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
    • , Belay Tessema
    • , Zemenu Tadesse Tessema
    • , Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan
    • , Roman Topor-Madry
    • , Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone
    • , Bach Xuan Tran
    • , Lorainne Tudor Car
    • , Irfan Ullah
    • , Olalekan A. Uthman
    • , Pascual R. Valdez
    • , Yousef Veisani
    • , Francesco S. Violante
    • , Vasily Vlassov
    • , Sebastian Vollmer
    • , Giang Thu Vu
    • , Yasir Waheed
    • , Yuan-Pang Wang
    • , John C. Wilkinson
    • , Andrea Sylvia Winkler
    • , Charles D. A. Wolfe
    • , Tomohide Yamada
    • , Alex Yeshaneh
    • , Paul Yip
    • , Engida Yisma
    • , Naohiro Yonemoto
    • , Mustafa Z. Younis
    • , Mahmoud Yousefifard
    • , Chuanhua Yu
    • , Sojib Bin Zaman
    • , Jianrong Zhang
    • , Yunquan Zhang
    • , Sanjay Zodpey
    • , Emmanuela Gakidou
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article |

    In contrast to a previous study in which only bankers showed increased dishonesty when reminded of their profession, this study found that such reminders induced some dishonesty in bankers, although the effect was not significant, and that this effect was not unique to bankers.

    • Zoe Rahwan
    • , Erez Yoeli
    •  & Barbara Fasolo
  • Review Article |

    Processes for dismantling and recycling lithium-ion battery packs from scrap electric vehicles are outlined.

    • Gavin Harper
    • , Roberto Sommerville
    • , Emma Kendrick
    • , Laura Driscoll
    • , Peter Slater
    • , Rustam Stolkin
    • , Allan Walton
    • , Paul Christensen
    • , Oliver Heidrich
    • , Simon Lambert
    • , Andrew Abbott
    • , Karl Ryder
    • , Linda Gaines
    •  & Paul Anderson
  • Letter |

    In a voter game, information gerrymandering can sway the outcome of the vote towards one party, even when both parties have equal sizes and each player has the same influence; and this effect can be exaggerated by strategically placed zealots or automated bots.

    • Alexander J. Stewart
    • , Mohsen Mosleh
    • , Marina Diakonova
    • , Antonio A. Arechar
    • , David G. Rand
    •  & Joshua B. Plotkin
  • Letter |

    The dynamics of interactions between hate-orientated networks on different online platforms is characterized, and a mathematical model predicts that policing on one online platform can make matters worse and generate ‘darker’ parts of the Internet.

    • N. F. Johnson
    • , R. Leahy
    • , N. Johnson Restrepo
    • , N. Velasquez
    • , M. Zheng
    • , P. Manrique
    • , P. Devkota
    •  & S. Wuchty
  • Letter |

    A framework that includes inequality shows that extreme inequality prevents cooperation, but overall welfare is maximized when endowments and productivities are aligned such that more-productive individuals receive higher endowments.

    • Oliver P. Hauser
    • , Christian Hilbe
    • , Krishnendu Chatterjee
    •  & Martin A. Nowak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A US national experiment showed that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention can increase adolescents’ grades and advanced course-taking, and identified the types of school that were poised to benefit the most.

    • David S. Yeager
    • , Paul Hanselman
    • , Gregory M. Walton
    • , Jared S. Murray
    • , Robert Crosnoe
    • , Chandra Muller
    • , Elizabeth Tipton
    • , Barbara Schneider
    • , Chris S. Hulleman
    • , Cintia P. Hinojosa
    • , David Paunesku
    • , Carissa Romero
    • , Kate Flint
    • , Alice Roberts
    • , Jill Trott
    • , Ronaldo Iachan
    • , Jenny Buontempo
    • , Sophia Man Yang
    • , Carlos M. Carvalho
    • , P. Richard Hahn
    • , Maithreyi Gopalan
    • , Pratik Mhatre
    • , Ronald Ferguson
    • , Angela L. Duckworth
    •  & Carol S. Dweck
  • Review Article |

    A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    •  & Stefan G. Hofmann
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of improved housing (with improved drinking water and sanitation, sufficient living area and durable construction) in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 2000 and 2015.

    • Lucy S. Tusting
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    • , Graham Alabaster
    • , Ewan Cameron
    • , Richard Cibulskis
    • , Michael Davies
    • , Seth Flaxman
    • , Harry S. Gibson
    • , Jakob Knudsen
    • , Charles Mbogo
    • , Fredros O. Okumu
    • , Lorenz von Seidlein
    • , Daniel J. Weiss
    • , Steve W. Lindsay
    • , Peter W. Gething
    •  & Samir Bhatt
  • Letter |

    Belief in moralizing gods followed the expansion of human societies and may have been preceded by doctrinal rituals that contributed to the initial rise of social complexity.

    • Harvey Whitehouse
    • , Pieter François
    • , Patrick E. Savage
    • , Thomas E. Currie
    • , Kevin C. Feeney
    • , Enrico Cioni
    • , Rosalind Purcell
    • , Robert M. Ross
    • , Jennifer Larson
    • , John Baines
    • , Barend ter Haar
    • , Alan Covey
    •  & Peter Turchin
  • Letter |

    Analyses of the output produced by large versus small teams of researchers and innovators demonstrate that their work differs systematically in the extent to which it disrupts or develops existing science and technology.

    • Lingfei Wu
    • , Dashun Wang
    •  & James A. Evans
  • Letter |

    A field study and three experiments demonstrate that people who engage in rare (non-normative) prosocial behaviours will be more effective advocates for those behaviours than people who merely praise the virtues of these prosocial behaviours.

    • Gordon T. Kraft-Todd
    • , Bryan Bollinger
    • , Kenneth Gillingham
    • , Stefan Lamp
    •  & David G. Rand
  • Article |

    Responses from more than two million people to an internet-based survey of attitudes towards moral dilemmas that might be faced by autonomous vehicles shed light on similarities and variations in ethical preferences among different populations.

    • Edmond Awad
    • , Sohan Dsouza
    • , Richard Kim
    • , Jonathan Schulz
    • , Joseph Henrich
    • , Azim Shariff
    • , Jean-François Bonnefon
    •  & Iyad Rahwan
  • Letter |

    Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.

    • Barbara Mühlemann
    • , Terry C. Jones
    • , Peter de Barros Damgaard
    • , Morten E. Allentoft
    • , Irina Shevnina
    • , Andrey Logvin
    • , Emma Usmanova
    • , Irina P. Panyushkina
    • , Bazartseren Boldgiv
    • , Tsevel Bazartseren
    • , Kadicha Tashbaeva
    • , Victor Merz
    • , Nina Lau
    • , Václav Smrčka
    • , Dmitry Voyakin
    • , Egor Kitov
    • , Andrey Epimakhov
    • , Dalia Pokutta
    • , Magdolna Vicze
    • , T. Douglas Price
    • , Vyacheslav Moiseyev
    • , Anders J. Hansen
    • , Ludovic Orlando
    • , Simon Rasmussen
    • , Martin Sikora
    • , Lasse Vinner
    • , Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus
    • , Derek J. Smith
    • , Dieter Glebe
    • , Ron A. M. Fouchier
    • , Christian Drosten
    • , Karl-Göran Sjögren
    • , Kristian Kristiansen
    •  & Eske Willerslev
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Local-level analyses show that, despite marked progress in educational attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes that have widened in many countries.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Joseph Friedman
    • , Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman
    • , Roy Burstein
    • , Molly H. Biehl
    • , Chloe Shields
    • , Jonathan F. Mosser
    • , Daniel C. Casey
    • , Aniruddha Deshpande
    • , Lucas Earl
    • , Robert C. Reiner
    • , Sarah E. Ray
    • , Nancy Fullman
    • , Aubrey J. Levine
    • , Rebecca W. Stubbs
    • , Benjamin K. Mayala
    • , Joshua Longbottom
    • , Annie J. Browne
    • , Samir Bhatt
    • , Daniel J. Weiss
    • , Peter W. Gething
    • , Ali H. Mokdad
    • , Stephen S. Lim
    • , Christopher J. L. Murray
    • , Emmanuela Gakidou
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Perspective |

    The recognition of adolescence as a distinctive period for biological embedding of culture, and mass education, are features of the globalization of cultures that are driven by transformations in labour, livelihood and lifestyle.

    • Carol M. Worthman
    •  & Kathy Trang
  • Letter |

    Analyses of house-size distributions in the Old and New World showed that wealth disparities increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale.

    • Timothy A. Kohler
    • , Michael E. Smith
    • , Amy Bogaard
    • , Gary M. Feinman
    • , Christian E. Peterson
    • , Alleen Betzenhauser
    • , Matthew Pailes
    • , Elizabeth C. Stone
    • , Anna Marie Prentiss
    • , Timothy J. Dennehy
    • , Laura J. Ellyson
    • , Linda M. Nicholas
    • , Ronald K. Faulseit
    • , Amy Styring
    • , Jade Whitlam
    • , Mattia Fochesato
    • , Thomas A. Foor
    •  & Samuel Bowles
  • Letter |

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography has been used to non-invasively visualize the voids in the Great Pyramid (Khufu’s Pyramid), revealing a large void situated above the Grand Gallery.

    • Kunihiro Morishima
    • , Mitsuaki Kuno
    • , Akira Nishio
    • , Nobuko Kitagawa
    • , Yuta Manabe
    • , Masaki Moto
    • , Fumihiko Takasaki
    • , Hirofumi Fujii
    • , Kotaro Satoh
    • , Hideyo Kodama
    • , Kohei Hayashi
    • , Shigeru Odaka
    • , Sébastien Procureur
    • , David Attié
    • , Simon Bouteille
    • , Denis Calvet
    • , Christopher Filosa
    • , Patrick Magnier
    • , Irakli Mandjavidze
    • , Marc Riallot
    • , Benoit Marini
    • , Pierre Gable
    • , Yoshikatsu Date
    • , Makiko Sugiura
    • , Yasser Elshayeb
    • , Tamer Elnady
    • , Mustapha Ezzy
    • , Emmanuel Guerriero
    • , Vincent Steiger
    • , Nicolas Serikoff
    • , Jean-Baptiste Mouret
    • , Bernard Charlès
    • , Hany Helal
    •  & Mehdi Tayoubi
  • Letter |

    New genome-wide data for ancient, Bronze Age individuals, including Minoans, Mycenaeans, and southwestern Anatolians, show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically very similar yet distinct, supporting the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean.

    • Iosif Lazaridis
    • , Alissa Mittnik
    • , Nick Patterson
    • , Swapan Mallick
    • , Nadin Rohland
    • , Saskia Pfrengle
    • , Anja Furtwängler
    • , Alexander Peltzer
    • , Cosimo Posth
    • , Andonis Vasilakis
    • , P. J. P. McGeorge
    • , Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou
    • , George Korres
    • , Holley Martlew
    • , Manolis Michalodimitrakis
    • , Mehmet Özsait
    • , Nesrin Özsait
    • , Anastasia Papathanasiou
    • , Michael Richards
    • , Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg
    • , Yannis Tzedakis
    • , Robert Arnott
    • , Daniel M. Fernandes
    • , Jeffery R. Hughey
    • , Dimitra M. Lotakis
    • , Patrick A. Navas
    • , Yannis Maniatis
    • , John A. Stamatoyannopoulos
    • , Kristin Stewardson
    • , Philipp Stockhammer
    • , Ron Pinhasi
    • , David Reich
    • , Johannes Krause
    •  & George Stamatoyannopoulos
  • Article |

    Optical dating of sediments containing stone artefacts newly excavated at Madjedbebe, Australia, indicate that human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, thereby setting a new minimum age for the arrival of people in Australia.

    • Chris Clarkson
    • , Zenobia Jacobs
    • , Ben Marwick
    • , Richard Fullagar
    • , Lynley Wallis
    • , Mike Smith
    • , Richard G. Roberts
    • , Elspeth Hayes
    • , Kelsey Lowe
    • , Xavier Carah
    • , S. Anna Florin
    • , Jessica McNeil
    • , Delyth Cox
    • , Lee J. Arnold
    • , Quan Hua
    • , Jillian Huntley
    • , Helen E. A. Brand
    • , Tiina Manne
    • , Andrew Fairbairn
    • , James Shulmeister
    • , Lindsey Lyle
    • , Makiah Salinas
    • , Mara Page
    • , Kate Connell
    • , Gayoung Park
    • , Kasih Norman
    • , Tessa Murphy
    •  & Colin Pardoe
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Analysis |

    Apparently contradictory conclusions regarding the ‘global warming hiatus’ are reconciled, strengthening the current scientific understanding that long-term global warming is extremely likely to be of anthropogenic origin.

    • Iselin Medhaug
    • , Martin B. Stolpe
    • , Erich M. Fischer
    •  & Reto Knutti
  • Article |

    Although 71% of marine protected areas are benefiting fish populations, their effects are highly variable, with staff capacity proving to be the most important explanatory variable.

    • David A. Gill
    • , Michael B. Mascia
    • , Gabby N. Ahmadia
    • , Louise Glew
    • , Sarah E. Lester
    • , Megan Barnes
    • , Ian Craigie
    • , Emily S. Darling
    • , Christopher M. Free
    • , Jonas Geldmann
    • , Susie Holst
    • , Olaf P. Jensen
    • , Alan T. White
    • , Xavier Basurto
    • , Lauren Coad
    • , Ruth D. Gates
    • , Greg Guannel
    • , Peter J. Mumby
    • , Hannah Thomas
    • , Sarah Whitmee
    • , Stephen Woodley
    •  & Helen E. Fox
  • Article |

    The authors use modelling to show that the network of trading routes known as the Silk Road emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists as they moved their herds and flocks between higher and lower elevations in generally mountainous regions.

    • Michael D. Frachetti
    • , C. Evan Smith
    • , Cynthia M. Traub
    •  & Tim Williams
  • Letter |

    The wisdom of the crowd can be improved by using an algorithm that selects the answer that is more popular than people predict, rather than the answer that is most popular.

    • Dražen Prelec
    • , H. Sebastian Seung
    •  & John McCoy
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Christopher M. Stojanowski
    • , Andrew C. Seidel
    • , Laura C. Fulginiti
    • , Kent M. Johnson
    •  & Jane E. Buikstra
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • M. Mirazón Lahr
    • , F. Rivera
    • , R. K. Power
    • , A. Mounier
    • , B. Copsey
    • , F. Crivellaro
    • , J. E. Edung
    • , J. M. Maillo Fernandez
    • , C. Kiarie
    • , J. Lawrence
    • , A. Leakey
    • , E. Mbua
    • , H. Miller
    • , A. Muigai
    • , D. M. Mukhongo
    • , A. Van Baelen
    • , R. Wood
    • , J.-L. Schwenninger
    • , R. Grün
    • , H. Achyuthan
    • , A. Wilshaw
    •  & R. A. Foley
  • Letter |

    Entertaining movies addressing both individual values and marriageability can provide a way to change cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting within certain cultures.

    • Sonja Vogt
    • , Nadia Ahmed Mohmmed Zaid
    • , Hilal El Fadil Ahmed
    • , Ernst Fehr
    •  & Charles Efferson
  • Letter |

    Demographic analysis of life expectancy and maximum reported age at death provides evidence that human lifespan has reached its natural limit.

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Supplement |

    Countries are spending more than ever on research and development, but the fields they fund vary depending on national priorities. And it is not just the research reputation that matters when choosing whether to move abroad — cost of living and quality-of-life are factors too.

  • Supplement |

    A small science community offers opportunities in a dramatic landscape, but can also limit career progression.

    • Annabel McGilvray
  • Supplement |

    The government is spending more than ever before on research and development, especially on work that is likely to produce returns.

    • Tom Benner