• Article | | open

    Group membership can inform individuals’ decisions on whether to cooperate. Here, the authors show how cooperative groups themselves can emerge and change due to use of reputation heuristics (such as “the enemy of a friend is an enemy”), and how this destabilizes cooperation over time.

    • Jörg Gross
    •  & Carsten K. W. De Dreu
  • Article | | open

    The reinforcement learning literature suggests decisions are based on a model-free system, operating retrospectively, and a model-based system, operating prospectively. Here, the authors show that a model-based retrospective inference of a reward’s cause, guides model-free credit-assignment.

    • Rani Moran
    • , Mehdi Keramati
    • , Peter Dayan
    •  & Raymond J. Dolan
  • Article | | open

    Place cells and grid cells are known to encode spatial information about an animal’s location relative to the surrounding environment. Here, the authors show that place cells predominantly encode environmental sensory inputs, while grid cell activity reflects a greater influence of physical motion.

    • Guifen Chen
    • , Yi Lu
    • , John A King
    • , Francesca Cacucci
    •  & Neil Burgess
  • Article | | open

    How the brain tracks the passage of time remains unclear. Here, the authors show that tracking activation changes in a neural network trained to recognize objects (similar to the human visual system) produces estimates of duration that are subject to human-like biases.

    • Warrick Roseboom
    • , Zafeirios Fountas
    • , Kyriacos Nikiforou
    • , David Bhowmik
    • , Murray Shanahan
    •  & Anil K. Seth
  • Article | | open

    Optimal decision-making requires integrating expectations about rewards with beliefs about reward contingencies. Here, the authors show that these aspects of reward are encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex then combined in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a process that guides choice biases characteristic of human decision-making.

    • Marion Rouault
    • , Jan Drugowitsch
    •  & Etienne Koechlin
  • Article | | open

    Cancer patients are at an increased risk of suicide: elderly, white, unmarried males with localized disease are at highest risk vs other cancer patients. Among those diagnosed at < 50 years of age, the plurality of suicides is from hematologic and testicular tumors; if > 50, from prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer patients.

    • Nicholas G. Zaorsky
    • , Ying Zhang
    • , Leonard Tuanquin
    • , Shirley M. Bluethmann
    • , Henry S. Park
    •  & Vernon M. Chinchilli
  • Article | | open

    Motor learning is thought to be mostly procedural, but recent work has suggested that there is a strong cognitive component to it. Here, the authors show that humans use dissociable cognitive strategies, either caching successful responses or using a rule-based strategy, to solve a visuomotor learning task.

    • Samuel D. McDougle
    •  & Jordan A. Taylor
  • Article | | open

    Previous research on visual memory often relies on image recognition as a test, and the exact nature of memory when freely recalling information is not clear. Here, Bainbridge and colleagues develop a drawing-based memory recall task, and show detailed-rich, quantifiable information diagnostic of previously encountered visual scenes.

    • Wilma A. Bainbridge
    • , Elizabeth H. Hall
    •  & Chris I. Baker
  • Article | | open

    Our eyes constantly follow objects we see, but do they also move in synchrony with auditory inputs? Here, the authors show that eyelid movements track the temporal structure of speech and other sound sequences, which could reflect a role of motor systems in temporal attention and sequence processing.

    • Peiqing Jin
    • , Jiajie Zou
    • , Tao Zhou
    •  & Nai Ding
  • Article | | open

    Human eye movements when viewing scenes can reflect overt spatial attention. Here, O’Connell and Chun predict human eye movement patterns from BOLD responses to natural scenes. Linking brain activity, convolutional neural network (CNN) models, and eye movement behavior, they show that brain activity patterns and CNN models share representations that guide eye movements to scenes.

    • Thomas P. O’Connell
    •  & Marvin M. Chun
  • Article | | open

    People slow down reactions after errors, yet it is debated whether the mechanisms behind this slowing are beneficial for future performance. Here, the authors show that EEG measures converge with model predictions supporting a complex but overall beneficial mechanism of post-error slowing.

    • Adrian G. Fischer
    • , Roland Nigbur
    • , Tilmann A. Klein
    • , Claudia Danielmeier
    •  & Markus Ullsperger
  • Article | | open

    Early childhood educational intervention has positive outcomes in adulthood, including higher education attainment, economic status, and overall health. This study shows that adults who underwent such intervention have greater enforcement of equality norm during social decision-making, potentially motivated by future planning.

    • Yi Luo
    • , Sébastien Hétu
    • , Terry Lohrenz
    • , Andreas Hula
    • , Peter Dayan
    • , Sharon Landesman Ramey
    • , Libbie Sonnier-Netto
    • , Jonathan Lisinski
    • , Stephen LaConte
    • , Tobias Nolte
    • , Peter Fonagy
    • , Elham Rahmani
    • , P. Read Montague
    •  & Craig Ramey
  • Article | | open

    Rewarding events are prioritized in memory, but to support adaptive decision-making memory should also be prioritized for the events leading up to a reward. Here, the authors show that reward retroactively prioritizes memory for proximal, neutral events that precede the reward.

    • Erin Kendall Braun
    • , G. Elliott Wimmer
    •  & Daphna Shohamy
  • Article | | open

    The sense of ownership – of which objects belong to us and which to others - is an important part of our lives, but how the brain keeps track of ownership is poorly understood. Here, the authors show that specific brain areas are involved in ownership acquisition for the self, friends, and strangers.

    • Patricia L. Lockwood
    • , Marco K. Wittmann
    • , Matthew A. J. Apps
    • , Miriam C. Klein-Flügge
    • , Molly J. Crockett
    • , Glyn W. Humphreys
    •  & Matthew F. S. Rushworth
  • Article | | open

    Humans can perform complex motor movements at varying speeds. Here, the authors show that a recurrent neural network can be trained to exhibit temporal scaling obeying Weber’s law as well as validate a prediction of the model of improved precision of movements at faster speeds.

    • Nicholas F. Hardy
    • , Vishwa Goudar
    • , Juan L. Romero-Sosa
    •  & Dean V. Buonomano
  • Article | | open

    Humans infer the trustworthiness of others based on subtle facial features such as the facial width-to-height ratio, but it is not known whether other primates are sensitive to these cues. Here, the authors show that macaque monkeys prefer to look at human faces which appear trustworthy to humans.

    • Manuela Costa
    • , Alice Gomez
    • , Elodie Barat
    • , Guillaume Lio
    • , Jean-René Duhamel
    •  & Angela Sirigu
  • Article | | open

    Humans often make sub-optimal decisions, choosing options that are less advantageous than available alternatives. Using computational modeling of behavior, the authors demonstrate that such irrational choices can arise from context dependence in reinforcement learning.

    • Sophie Bavard
    • , Maël Lebreton
    • , Mehdi Khamassi
    • , Giorgio Coricelli
    •  & Stefano Palminteri
  • Article | | open

    Pain is a complex phenomenon involving not just the perception of pain, but also autonomic and motor responses. Here, the authors show that these different dimensions of pain are associated with distinct patterns of neural responses to noxious stimuli as measured using EEG.

    • Laura Tiemann
    • , Vanessa D. Hohn
    • , Son Ta Dinh
    • , Elisabeth S. May
    • , Moritz M. Nickel
    • , Joachim Gross
    •  & Markus Ploner
  • Article | | open

    Humans compensate for sensory noise by biasing sensory estimates toward prior expectations, as predicted by models of Bayesian inference. Here, the authors show that humans perform ‘late inference’ downstream of sensory processing to mitigate the effects of noisy internal mental computations.

    • Evan D. Remington
    • , Tiffany V. Parks
    •  & Mehrdad Jazayeri
  • Article | | open

    Men are often more willing to compete compared to women, which may contribute to gender differences in wages and career advancement. Here, the authors show that ‘power priming’ - encouraging people to imagine themselves in a situation of power - can close the gender gap in competitiveness.

    • Loukas Balafoutas
    • , Helena Fornwagner
    •  & Matthias Sutter
  • Article | | open

    It is believed that fast “ripple” oscillations in the hippocampus play a role in consolidation, a process by which memory traces are stabilized. Here, the authors show that ripples occuring during non-REM sleep trigger “replay” of brain activity associated with previously experienced stimuli.

    • Hui Zhang
    • , Juergen Fell
    •  & Nikolai Axmacher
  • Article | | open

    An individual’s social network—their friends, family, and acquaintances—is important for their health, but existing tools for assessing social networks have limitations. Here, the authors introduce a quantitative social network assessment tool on a secure open-source web platform and show its utility in a nation-wide study.

    • Amar Dhand
    • , Charles C. White
    • , Catherine Johnson
    • , Zongqi Xia
    •  & Philip L. De Jager
  • Article | | open

    People vary in the extent to which they feel better after taking an inert, placebo, treatment, but the basis for individual placebo response is unclear. Here, the authors show how brain structural and functional variables, as well as personality traits, predict placebo response in those with chronic back pain.

    • Etienne Vachon-Presseau
    • , Sara E. Berger
    • , Taha B. Abdullah
    • , Lejian Huang
    • , Guillermo A. Cecchi
    • , James W. Griffith
    • , Thomas J. Schnitzer
    •  & A. Vania Apkarian
  • Article | | open

    The presence of opposite horizontal motion in the two eyes is a cue for perceiving motion-in-depth, but also leads to suppressed motion sensitivity. Here, the authors address this paradox and show that spatial and interocular integration mechanisms, distinct from the extraction of motion-in-depth, drive suppression.

    • Peter J. Kohler
    • , Wesley J. Meredith
    •  & Anthony M. Norcia
  • Article | | open

    Sleep is important for memory consolidation but its role in reconsolidation is not known. Here, the authors show in starlings that an auditory memory consolidated by sleep can be destabilized by retrieval and impaired by subsequent interference, but the memory recovers and stabilizes after a night of sleep-dependent reconsolidation.

    • Timothy P. Brawn
    • , Howard C. Nusbaum
    •  & Daniel Margoliash
  • Article | | open

    The decoy effect refers to the fact that the presence of a third option can shift people’s preferences between two other options even though the third option is inferior to both. Here, the authors show how the decoy effect can enhance cooperation in a social dilemma, the repeated prisoner’s dilemma.

    • Zhen Wang
    • , Marko Jusup
    • , Lei Shi
    • , Joung-Hun Lee
    • , Yoh Iwasa
    •  & Stefano Boccaletti
  • Article | | open

    Economists have observed that many people seem unwilling to save for the future. Here, the authors show that earning and saving are subject to a basic asymmetry in attentional choice, such that cues that are associated with saving are perceived as occurring later than cues associated with earning.

    • Kesong Hu
    • , Eve De Rosa
    •  & Adam K. Anderson
  • Article | | open

    Testosterone is believed to be involved in social rank-related behavior. Here, the authors show that one dose of testosterone increases men’s preference for “high status” goods and brands, suggesting a role for testosterone in modern consumer behavior in men.

    • G. Nave
    • , A. Nadler
    • , D. Dubois
    • , D. Zava
    • , C. Camerer
    •  & H. Plassmann
  • Article | | open

    Humans give and receive social influence—e.g. advice—in many situations, but it is not known whether social influence is a reciprocal process, like trade. Here, the authors show that people are more likely to follow a partner's advice if that partner has previously complied with their advice.

    • Ali Mahmoodi
    • , Bahador Bahrami
    •  & Carsten Mehring
  • Article | | open

    Strong positive and strong negative reciprocators reward cooperation and punish defection, respectively, regardless of future benefits. Here, Weber and colleagues demonstrate that dispositions towards strong positive and strong negative reciprocity are not correlated within individuals.

    • Till O. Weber
    • , Ori Weisel
    •  & Simon Gächter
  • Article | | open

    When many people are speaking, e.g. at a party, we can selectively attend to just one speaker. Here, using ‘hyperscanning’, the authors show that interpersonal neural synchronization is selectively increased between a listener and the attended speaker, compared to between the listener and an unattended speaker.

    • Bohan Dai
    • , Chuansheng Chen
    • , Yuhang Long
    • , Lifen Zheng
    • , Hui Zhao
    • , Xialu Bai
    • , Wenda Liu
    • , Yuxuan Zhang
    • , Li Liu
    • , Taomei Guo
    • , Guosheng Ding
    •  & Chunming Lu
  • Article | | open

    The cumulative development of culture has proven difficult to study in the laboratory. Here, the authors examine entries to a series of large programming contests to show that successful entries are usually ‘tweaks’ of existing solutions, but occasional ‘leaps’ can bring larger benefits.

    • Elena Miu
    • , Ned Gulley
    • , Kevin N. Laland
    •  & Luke Rendell
  • Article | | open

    Ambiguous uncertainty refers to situations where the likelihood of specific outcomes are not known. Here, the authors show that people tolerant to ambiguous uncertainty are more likely to make costly decisions to cooperate with or trust others.

    • Marc-Lluís Vives
    •  & Oriel FeldmanHall
  • Article | | open

    Early childhood deprivation such as institutionalization can greatly affect early development. Here, the authors study children who were raised in institutions but later randomly placed in foster care vs. not, to understand how early-life deprivation affects associative learning in adolescence.

    • Margaret A. Sheridan
    • , Katie A. McLaughlin
    • , Warren Winter
    • , Nathan Fox
    • , Charles Zeanah
    •  & Charles A. Nelson
  • Article | | open

    Humans are known to use social heuristics to make intuitive decisions on whether to cooperate. Here, the authors show with evolutionary simulations that social heuristics can be an adaptive solution to uncertainties about the consequences of cooperation and can greatly increase cooperation levels.

    • Pieter van den Berg
    •  & Tom Wenseleers
  • Article | | open

    Harmonicity is associated with a single sound source and may be a useful cue with which to segregate the speech of multiple talkers. Here the authors introduce a method for perturbing the constituent frequencies of speech and show that violating harmonicity degrades intelligibility of speech mixtures.

    • Sara Popham
    • , Dana Boebinger
    • , Dan P. W. Ellis
    • , Hideki Kawahara
    •  & Josh H. McDermott
  • Article | | open

    Social learning is a crucial human ability. Here, the authors examined children in 7 cultures and show that children’s reliance on social information and their preference to follow the majority vary across societies. However, the ontogeny of majority preference follows the same, U-shaped pattern across all societies.

    • Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen
    • , Emma Cohen
    • , Emma Collier-Baker
    • , Christian J. Rapold
    • , Marie Schäfer
    • , Sebastian Schütte
    •  & Daniel B. M. Haun
  • Article | | open

    Reactions to the same event can vary vastly based on multiple factors. Here the authors show that people with high trait-level paranoia process ambiguous information in a narrative differently and this can be attributed to greater activity in mentalizing brain regions during the moments of ambiguity.

    • Emily S. Finn
    • , Philip R. Corlett
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Peter A. Bandettini
    •  & R. Todd Constable
  • Article | | open

    Previous studies suggest that individual differences in intelligence correlate with circuit complexity and dendritic arborization in the brain. Here the authors use NODDI, a diffusion MRI technique, to confirm that neurite density and arborization are inversely related to measures of intelligence.

    • Erhan Genç
    • , Christoph Fraenz
    • , Caroline Schlüter
    • , Patrick Friedrich
    • , Rüdiger Hossiep
    • , Manuel C. Voelkle
    • , Josef M. Ling
    • , Onur Güntürkün
    •  & Rex E. Jung
  • Article | | open

    Trial and error learning requires the brain to generate expectations and match them to outcomes, yet whether this occurs for semantic learning is unclear. Here, authors show that the brain encodes the degree to which new factual information violates expectations, which in turn determines whether information is encoded in long-term memory.

    • Alex Pine
    • , Noa Sadeh
    • , Aya Ben-Yakov
    • , Yadin Dudai
    •  & Avi Mendelsohn
  • Article | | open

    Forward models predict and attenuate the sensory feedback of voluntary movement yet their involvement in motor imagery has only been theorized. Here the authors show that motor imagery recruits forward models to elicit sensory attenuation to the same extent as real movements.

    • Konstantina Kilteni
    • , Benjamin Jan Andersson
    • , Christian Houborg
    •  & H. Henrik Ehrsson
  • Article | | open

    Emotional memory can change when retrieved, yet the conditions under which this can occur are not fully described. Here, authors show that taking a pill of propranolol taken during a specific time window can change the expression of fear memory in a person, and that sleep is necessary to forget learned fear.

    • Merel Kindt
    •  & Marieke Soeter
  • Article | | open

    The unique contributions of different frontoparietal networks (FPNs) in cognition remains unclear. Here, authors use neuroadaptive Bayesian optimization to identify cognitive tasks that segregate dorsal and ventral FPNs and reveal complex many-to-many mappings between cognitive tasks and FPNs.

    • Romy Lorenz
    • , Ines R. Violante
    • , Ricardo Pio Monti
    • , Giovanni Montana
    • , Adam Hampshire
    •  & Robert Leech
  • Article | | open

    Detailed memories are transformed into gist-like memories over time. Here, the authors report that this change is linked to a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, such that anterior activity supporting memory specificity declines over time while posterior activity patterns carrying gist representations remain more stable.

    • Lisa C. Dandolo
    •  & Lars Schwabe