Planetary science

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Asteroid shapes and hydration levels can serve as tracers of their history and origin. Here, the authors show top shape asteroids can form directly through gravitational reaccumulation and rubble piles formed in a single disruption can have similar porosities but variable degrees of hydration.

    • P. Michel
    • , R.-L. Ballouz
    • , O. S. Barnouin
    • , M. Jutzi
    • , K. J. Walsh
    • , B. H. May
    • , C. Manzoni
    • , D. C. Richardson
    • , S. R. Schwartz
    • , S. Sugita
    • , S. Watanabe
    • , H. Miyamoto
    • , M. Hirabayashi
    • , W. F. Bottke
    • , H. C. Connolly
    • , M. Yoshikawa
    •  & D. S. Lauretta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here present a 3D model that simulates the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater. Based on asymmetries in the subsurface structure of the Chicxulub crater, the authors diagnose impact angle and direction and suggest a steeply inclined (60° to horizontal) impact from the northeast.

    • G. S. Collins
    • , N. Patel
    • , T. M. Davison
    • , A. S. P. Rae
    • , J. V. Morgan
    • , S. P. S. Gulick
    • , G. L. Christeson
    • , E. Chenot
    • , P. Claeys
    • , C. S. Cockell
    • , M. J. L. Coolen
    • , L. Ferrière
    • , C. Gebhardt
    • , K. Goto
    • , H. Jones
    • , D. A. Kring
    • , J. Lofi
    • , C. M. Lowery
    • , R. Ocampo-Torres
    • , L. Perez-Cruz
    • , A. E. Pickersgill
    • , M. H. Poelchau
    • , C. Rasmussen
    • , M. Rebolledo-Vieyra
    • , U. Riller
    • , H. Sato
    • , J. Smit
    • , S. M. Tikoo
    • , N. Tomioka
    • , J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi
    • , M. T. Whalen
    • , A. Wittmann
    • , L. Xiao
    • , K. E. Yamaguchi
    • , N. Artemieva
    •  & T. J. Bralower
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Applying high-pressure and -temperature experiments, the authors here measure sound velocities in various liquid Fe-S alloys under conditions expected for the upper Martian core. The results together with future InSight mission data will help to understand whether the Martian core is molten Fe-S.

    • Keisuke Nishida
    • , Yuki Shibazaki
    • , Hidenori Terasaki
    • , Yuji Higo
    • , Akio Suzuki
    • , Nobumasa Funamori
    •  & Kei Hirose
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors analyze a system of multi-layered hazes above Saturn’s hexagonal-wave cloud tops in the visual range. Analyses suggest the formation to be caused by condensation processes, and the vertical distribution of stacked layers by the upward propagation of internal gravity waves.

    • A. Sánchez-Lavega
    • , A. García-Muñoz
    • , T. del Río-Gaztelurrutia
    • , S. Pérez-Hoyos
    • , J. F. Sanz-Requena
    • , R. Hueso
    • , S. Guerlet
    •  & J. Peralta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth rotation variation reflects the physics, dynamics and the magnetic field changes of Earth’s interior. The authors find a significant ~8.6 year periodic increasing oscillation in length of day and its good link to geomagnetic jerks related to Earth’s core oscillations, which may be used to predict the future jerk timings.

    • Pengshuo Duan
    •  & Chengli Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Using high-resolution orbital imagery of the Martian surface, the authors Salese et al. here describe the first discovered stratigraphic product of multiple extensive fluvial-channel belts in an exposed vertical section at Izola Mensa in the northwestern rim of the Hellas Basin.

    • Francesco Salese
    • , William J. McMahon
    • , Matthew R. Balme
    • , Veronique Ansan
    • , Joel M. Davis
    •  & Maarten G. Kleinhans
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The surface of active asteroid (3200) Phaethon, parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, reaches temperatures sufficient to destabilize hydrated materials. Here, the authors show that the northern hemisphere and the equatorial region of this asteroid reveal no evidence of hydration in the near-infrared spectra.

    • Driss Takir
    • , Theodore Kareta
    • , Joshua P. Emery
    • , Josef Hanuš
    • , Vishnu Reddy
    • , Ellen S. Howell
    • , Andrew S. Rivkin
    •  & Tomoko Arai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Applying first-principles molecular dynamic simulations and thermodynamic modelling, the authors suggest a vertical oxygen fugacity gradient in magma oceans of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Consequently, the study proposes larger planets like Earth to have stronger oxidized upper mantles than smaller bodies such as Mars or the Moon.

    • Jie Deng
    • , Zhixue Du
    • , Bijaya B. Karki
    • , Dipta B. Ghosh
    •  & Kanani K. M. Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mars has long been thought to contain organic compounds, but the origins and plausibility are debated. Here the authors employ a new technique to assess organic nitrogen compounds in a Martian meteorite, concluding that these compounds are indeed likely to originate from the Red Planet.

    • Mizuho Koike
    • , Ryoichi Nakada
    • , Iori Kajitani
    • , Tomohiro Usui
    • , Yusuke Tamenori
    • , Haruna Sugahara
    •  & Atsuko Kobayashi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth’s surface underwent a dramatic transition ~2.3 billion years ago when atmospheric oxygen first accumulated during the Great Oxidation Event. Here, the authors find that biogenic methane and volcanic emissions played a vital role in the reduced Late Archean atmosphere.

    • Aubrey L. Zerkle
    • , Runsheng Yin
    • , Chaoyue Chen
    • , Xiangdong Li
    • , Gareth J. Izon
    •  & Stephen E. Grasby
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here analyse the petrology of the meteorite NWA 8321 (parent body Vesta). They find sulfidation processes of olivine suggesting metasomatism in the Vestan interior and a partial melting origin for the host noritic diogenite.

    • Ai-Cheng Zhang
    • , Noriyuki Kawasaki
    • , Huiming Bao
    • , Jia Liu
    • , Liping Qin
    • , Minami Kuroda
    • , Jian-Feng Gao
    • , Li-Hui Chen
    • , Ye He
    • , Naoya Sakamoto
    •  & Hisayoshi Yurimoto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here investigate troilite (FeS) grains recovered from the regolith of asteroid Itokawa. Finding wide-spread occurrence of metallic iron whiskers, the authors suggest them to be a decomposition product formed through irradiation of the sulfide by energetic ions of the solar wind.

    • Toru Matsumoto
    • , Dennis Harries
    • , Falko Langenhorst
    • , Akira Miyake
    •  & Takaaki Noguchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cooling of the iron core in the early Earth may have been too slow to allow for the generation of a magnetic field. Based on quantum mechanical and geodynamical modelling approaches, the authors find that the electrical conductivity of silicate liquid at high pressure and temperature conditions could have been sufficient to generate a silicate dynamo and a magnetic field in the early Earth.

    • Lars Stixrude
    • , Roberto Scipioni
    •  & Michael P. Desjarlais
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The InSight spacecraft landed on Mars on November 2018. Here, the authors characterize the surficial geology of the landing site and compare with observations and models derived from remote sensing data prior to landing and from ongoing in situ geophysical investigations of the subsurface.

    • M. Golombek
    • , N. H. Warner
    • , J. A. Grant
    • , E. Hauber
    • , V. Ansan
    • , C. M. Weitz
    • , N. Williams
    • , C. Charalambous
    • , S. A. Wilson
    • , A. DeMott
    • , M. Kopp
    • , H. Lethcoe-Wilson
    • , L. Berger
    • , R. Hausmann
    • , E. Marteau
    • , C. Vrettos
    • , A. Trussell
    • , W. Folkner
    • , S. Le Maistre
    • , N. Mueller
    • , M. Grott
    • , T. Spohn
    • , S. Piqueux
    • , E. Millour
    • , F. Forget
    • , I. Daubar
    • , N. Murdoch
    • , P. Lognonné
    • , C. Perrin
    • , S. Rodriguez
    • , W. T. Pike
    • , T. Parker
    • , J. Maki
    • , H. Abarca
    • , R. Deen
    • , J. Hall
    • , P. Andres
    • , N. Ruoff
    • , F. Calef
    • , S. Smrekar
    • , M. M. Baker
    • , M. Banks
    • , A. Spiga
    • , D. Banfield
    • , J. Garvin
    • , C. E. Newman
    •  & W. B. Banerdt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors here present the diurnal tides of dust within the southern Martian atmosphere. The dust tides imply a fast meridional exchange of heat and materials on Mars and allow water content near the summer pole to be rapidly transported to the middle latitudes in the nighttime which is then lifted by daytime deep convection.

    • Zhaopeng Wu
    • , Tao Li
    • , Xi Zhang
    • , Jing Li
    •  & Jun Cui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Following the impact of the protoplanet Theia, planet Earth likely transformed into a magma ocean. New high temperature and pressure experiments by Xie et al. suggest that a layer enriched in bridgmanite formed during the magma ocean phase of Earth–remnants of this ancient layer today may be responsible for the viscosity peak between 660 and 1500 km in present solid mantle.

    • Longjian Xie
    • , Akira Yoneda
    • , Daisuke Yamazaki
    • , Geeth Manthilake
    • , Yuji Higo
    • , Yoshinori Tange
    • , Nicolas Guignot
    • , Andrew King
    • , Mario Scheel
    •  & Denis Andrault
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The ~70 km-diameter Yarrabubba impact structure in Western Australia has previously been regarded as among Earth’s oldest meteorite craters, but has hitherto lacked absolute age constraints. Here, the authors determine a precise impact age of 2229 ± 5 Ma, which extends the terrestrial cratering record back in time by > 200 million years and establishes Yarrabubba as the oldest recognised meteorite impact structure on Earth.

    • Timmons M. Erickson
    • , Christopher L. Kirkland
    • , Nicholas E. Timms
    • , Aaron J. Cavosie
    •  & Thomas M. Davison
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Telecommunication, navigation and remote sensing services are highly dependent on how well satellites provide global coverage. Here the authors show a pair of four-satellite low-cost longer-life constellations that provide nearly continuous global coverage to support Earth observation.

    • Lake A. Singh
    • , William R. Whittecar
    • , Marc D. DiPrinzio
    • , Jonathan D. Herman
    • , Matthew P. Ferringer
    •  & Patrick M. Reed
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lithium use in electronics has increased dramatically, but the environmental impacts are poorly understood. Here the authors show lithium in river and tap water in South Korea is coincident with population density, and that waste water treatment is ineffective at scrubbing this potential toxin.

    • Hye-Bin Choi
    • , Jong-Sik Ryu
    • , Woo-Jin Shin
    •  & Nathalie Vigier
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A reference function for describing the orientation of clay platelets in clay-rich materials is still lacking, but is necessary for applications such as prediction of water and solute transfer and designs of innovative materials. Here, the authors determine a reference orientation function of clay platelets, and validate their function for both engineered and natural clay-rich media.

    • Thomas Dabat
    • , Fabien Hubert
    • , Erwan Paineau
    • , Pascale Launois
    • , Claude Laforest
    • , Brian Grégoire
    • , Baptiste Dazas
    • , Emmanuel Tertre
    • , Alfred Delville
    •  & Eric Ferrage
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The elevation and high heat flow of Southern South Africa has controversially been attributed to a mantle plume. Here, the authors link degassed CO2 to a non-degassed mantle source rather than the convecting upper mantle, confirming plume-related mantle melting.

    • S. M. V. Gilfillan
    • , D. Györe
    • , S. Flude
    • , G. Johnson
    • , C. E. Bond
    • , N. Hicks
    • , R. Lister
    • , D. G. Jones
    • , Y. Kremer
    • , R. S. Haszeldine
    •  & F. M. Stuart
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Banded iron formations could have formed in the early oceans due to microbial metabolism. Here Dodd and colleagues find little organic carbon in these formations, indicating microbial iron cycling was minimal and could have limited the recycling of important nutrients to overlying waters.

    • Matthew S. Dodd
    • , Dominic Papineau
    • , Franco Pirajno
    • , Yusheng Wan
    •  & Juha A. Karhu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gale Crater on Mars has been demonstrated to have once hosted water, but its chemistry is still under debate. Here the authors use mineralogical rock compositions and show the once saline character of Gale Crater—a result of warmer climate periods during the Hesperian period.

    • Keisuke Fukushi
    • , Yasuhito Sekine
    • , Hiroshi Sakuma
    • , Koki Morida
    •  & Robin Wordsworth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The occurrence of longitudinal ridges on large landslide masses on planetary bodies is enabled by long runout distances, which have so far been attributed to the presence of ice. The authors here present a challenging model based on mechanical instabilities within the flow, suggesting that ice is not needed.

    • Giulia Magnarini
    • , Thomas M. Mitchell
    • , Peter M. Grindrod
    • , Liran Goren
    •  & Harrison H. Schmitt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fractured rocks of impact craters have been suggested to be suitable hosts for deep microbial communities on Earth, and potentially other terrestrial planets, yet direct evidence remains elusive. Here, the authors show that the Siljan impact structure is host to long-term deep methane-cycling microbial activity.

    • Henrik Drake
    • , Nick M. W. Roberts
    • , Christine Heim
    • , Martin J. Whitehouse
    • , Sandra Siljeström
    • , Ellen Kooijman
    • , Curt Broman
    • , Magnus Ivarsson
    •  & Mats E. Åström
  • Matters Arising
    | Open Access

    • Alan G. Hogg
    • , Colin J. N. Wilson
    • , David J. Lowe
    • , Chris S. M. Turney
    • , Paul White
    • , Andrew M. Lorrey
    • , Sturt W. Manning
    • , Jonathan G. Palmer
    • , Sarah Bury
    • , Julie Brown
    • , John Southon
    •  & Fiona Petchey
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The formation of nucleobases can take place in extraterrestrial environments. Here the authors show the simultaneous synthesis of three purine nucleobases and three pyrimidine from interstellar ice analogues that suggest the evolution from molecular clouds to stars and planets provide suitable environment for nucleobase synthesis in space.

    • Yasuhiro Oba
    • , Yoshinori Takano
    • , Hiroshi Naraoka
    • , Naoki Watanabe
    •  & Akira Kouchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gigantic jets, lightning discharges originating from tropical thunderstorms that can reach the base of the ionosphere at 90 km altitude, have not been captured using high-speed video cameras before. Here, the first such images are reported, showing a step-wise evolution of gigantic jets during their rising phase.

    • Oscar A. van der Velde
    • , Joan Montanyà
    • , Jesús A. López
    •  & Steven A. Cummer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Chang’E-4 mission in January 2019 had the major challenge to land on the lunar far side without traditional radiometric techniques due to the missing line-of-sight. The authors here describe landing trajectory reconstruction and positioning techniques based upon the Moon’s digital terrain model that allowed reproducing the entire process of a successful landing.

    • Jianjun Liu
    • , Xin Ren
    • , Wei Yan
    • , Chunlai Li
    • , He Zhang
    • , Yang Jia
    • , Xingguo Zeng
    • , Wangli Chen
    • , Xingye Gao
    • , Dawei Liu
    • , Xu Tan
    • , Xiaoxia Zhang
    • , Tao Ni
    • , Hongbo Zhang
    • , Wei Zuo
    • , Yan Su
    •  & Weibin Wen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Due to active geological resurfacing, the record of large impact basins (e.g. in Chryse Planitia) on Mars seems to be widely absent. Based on high-quality global datasets, the authors here propose a buried impact basin, covered by up to 1 km of sediments or lava flows after its formation more than 4 billion years ago.

    • Lu Pan
    • , Cathy Quantin-Nataf
    • , Sylvain Breton
    •  & Chloé Michaut
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Thunderstorms are commonly represented through simplified parametrizations in weather and climate models. Here it is shown that an increase in model resolution over West Africa, enabling the explicit modeling of Sahelian convective systems, can improve 5–8 day tropical and mid-latitude weather forecasts.

    • Gregor Pante
    •  & Peter Knippertz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cyanide is thought to be crucial for the origin of life. Here, the authors showed that iron cyanocarbonyl complexes are present in meteorites and propose that these compounds were a source of free cyanide on early Earth and served as precursors to the active sites of ancient hydrogenases.

    • Karen E. Smith
    • , Christopher H. House
    • , Ricardo D. Arevalo Jr.
    • , Jason P. Dworkin
    •  & Michael P. Callahan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Intense electromagnetic impulses induced by Jupiter’s lightning can produce both low-frequency dispersed whistler emissions and non-dispersed radio pulses. Here, the authors show Jupiter dispersed pulses associated with Jovian lightning that are evidence of low density holes in Jupiter’s ionosphere.

    • Masafumi Imai
    • , Ivana Kolmašová
    • , William S. Kurth
    • , Ondřej Santolík
    • , George B. Hospodarsky
    • , Donald A. Gurnett
    • , Shannon T. Brown
    • , Scott J. Bolton
    • , John E. P. Connerney
    •  & Steven M. Levin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Water can crystallize in different ice polymorphs according to temperature and pressure conditions. Here the authors predict by molecular dynamics simulations a new ice phase spontaneously forming at room temperature under high pressure and high electric field.

    • Weiduo Zhu
    • , Yingying Huang
    • , Chongqin Zhu
    • , Hong-Hui Wu
    • , Lu Wang
    • , Jaeil Bai
    • , Jinlong Yang
    • , Joseph S. Francisco
    • , Jijun Zhao
    • , Lan-Feng Yuan
    •  & Xiao Cheng Zeng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sublimation of ice is believed to have generated a variety of landforms on Mars and other planetary bodies. Here the authors show the first long-term in situ effective diffusion coefficient of terrestrial ice-free loess (Mars analog soil), scaled to Mars average pressure, temperature and CO2 atmosphere.

    • Thomas A. Douglas
    •  & Michael T. Mellon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent studies have shown that lightning is initiated by a newly-recognized discharge process called fast positive breakdown. Here, the authors present observational evidence of fast breakdown but of negative polarity, seemingly contrary to current understanding of discharge physics.

    • Julia N. Tilles
    • , Ningyu Liu
    • , Mark A. Stanley
    • , Paul R. Krehbiel
    • , William Rison
    • , Michael G. Stock
    • , Joseph R. Dwyer
    • , Robert Brown
    •  & Jennifer Wilson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vicinity of small bodies might be dangerous to the spacecrafts and to their instrumentation. Here the authors show the operational environment of asteroid Bennu, validate its photometric phase function and demonstrate the accelerating rotational rate due to YORP effect using the data acquired during the approach phase of OSIRIS-REx mission.

    • C. W. Hergenrother
    • , C. K. Maleszewski
    • , M. C. Nolan
    • , J.-Y. Li
    • , C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny
    • , F. C. Shelly
    • , E. S. Howell
    • , T. R. Kareta
    • , M. R. M. Izawa
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , E. B. Bierhaus
    • , H. Campins
    • , S. R. Chesley
    • , B. E. Clark
    • , E. J. Christensen
    • , D. N. DellaGiustina
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , D. R. Golish
    • , C. M. Hartzell
    • , B. Rizk
    • , D. J. Scheeres
    • , P. H. Smith
    • , X.-D. Zou
    • , D. S. Lauretta
    • , D. E. Highsmith
    • , J. Small
    • , D. Vokrouhlický
    • , N. E. Bowles
    • , E. Brown
    • , K. L. Donaldson Hanna
    • , T. Warren
    • , C. Brunet
    • , R. A. Chicoine
    • , S. Desjardins
    • , D. Gaudreau
    • , T. Haltigin
    • , S. Millington-Veloza
    • , A. Rubi
    • , J. Aponte
    • , N. Gorius
    • , A. Lunsford
    • , B. Allen
    • , J. Grindlay
    • , D. Guevel
    • , D. Hoak
    • , J. Hong
    • , D. L. Schrader
    • , J. Bayron
    • , O. Golubov
    • , P. Sánchez
    • , J. Stromberg
    • , M. Hirabayashi
    • , C. M. Hartzell
    • , S. Oliver
    • , M. Rascon
    • , A. Harch
    • , J. Joseph
    • , S. Squyres
    • , D. Richardson
    • , J. P. Emery
    • , L. McGraw
    • , R. Ghent
    • , R. P. Binzel
    • , M. M. Al Asad
    • , C. L. Johnson
    • , L. Philpott
    • , H. C. M. Susorney
    • , E. A. Cloutis
    • , R. D. Hanna
    • , H. C. Connolly Jr.
    • , F. Ciceri
    • , A. R. Hildebrand
    • , E.-M. Ibrahim
    • , L. Breitenfeld
    • , T. Glotch
    • , A. D. Rogers
    • , B. E. Clark
    • , S. Ferrone
    • , C. A. Thomas
    • , H. Campins
    • , Y. Fernandez
    • , W. Chang
    • , A. Cheuvront
    • , D. Trang
    • , S. Tachibana
    • , H. Yurimoto
    • , J. R. Brucato
    • , G. Poggiali
    • , M. Pajola
    • , E. Dotto
    • , E. Mazzotta Epifani
    • , M. K. Crombie
    • , C. Lantz
    • , M. R. M. Izawa
    • , J. de Leon
    • , J. Licandro
    • , J. L. Rizos Garcia
    • , S. Clemett
    • , K. Thomas-Keprta
    • , S. Van wal
    • , M. Yoshikawa
    • , J. Bellerose
    • , S. Bhaskaran
    • , C. Boyles
    • , S. R. Chesley
    • , C. M. Elder
    • , D. Farnocchia
    • , A. Harbison
    • , B. Kennedy
    • , A. Knight
    • , N. Martinez-Vlasoff
    • , N. Mastrodemos
    • , T. McElrath
    • , W. Owen
    • , R. Park
    • , B. Rush
    • , L. Swanson
    • , Y. Takahashi
    • , D. Velez
    • , K. Yetter
    • , C. Thayer
    • , C. Adam
    • , P. Antreasian
    • , J. Bauman
    • , C. Bryan
    • , B. Carcich
    • , M. Corvin
    • , J. Geeraert
    • , J. Hoffman
    • , J. M. Leonard
    • , E. Lessac-Chenen
    • , A. Levine
    • , J. McAdams
    • , L. McCarthy
    • , D. Nelson
    • , B. Page
    • , J. Pelgrift
    • , E. Sahr
    • , K. Stakkestad
    • , D. Stanbridge
    • , D. Wibben
    • , B. Williams
    • , K. Williams
    • , P. Wolff
    • , P. Hayne
    • , D. Kubitschek
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , J. D. P. Deshapriya
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , M. Fulchignoni
    • , P. Hasselmann
    • , F. Merlin
    • , A. Praet
    • , E. B. Bierhaus
    • , O. Billett
    • , A. Boggs
    • , B. Buck
    • , S. Carlson-Kelly
    • , J. Cerna
    • , K. Chaffin
    • , E. Church
    • , M. Coltrin
    • , J. Daly
    • , A. Deguzman
    • , R. Dubisher
    • , D. Eckart
    • , D. Ellis
    • , P. Falkenstern
    • , A. Fisher
    • , M. E. Fisher
    • , P. Fleming
    • , K. Fortney
    • , S. Francis
    • , S. Freund
    • , S. Gonzales
    • , P. Haas
    • , A. Hasten
    • , D. Hauf
    • , A. Hilbert
    • , D. Howell
    • , F. Jaen
    • , N. Jayakody
    • , M. Jenkins
    • , K. Johnson
    • , M. Lefevre
    • , H. Ma
    • , C. Mario
    • , K. Martin
    • , C. May
    • , M. McGee
    • , B. Miller
    • , C. Miller
    • , G. Miller
    • , A. Mirfakhrai
    • , E. Muhle
    • , C. Norman
    • , R. Olds
    • , C. Parish
    • , M. Ryle
    • , M. Schmitzer
    • , P. Sherman
    • , M. Skeen
    • , M. Susak
    • , B. Sutter
    • , Q. Tran
    • , C. Welch
    • , R. Witherspoon
    • , J. Wood
    • , J. Zareski
    • , M. Arvizu-Jakubicki
    • , E. Asphaug
    • , E. Audi
    • , R.-L. Ballouz
    • , R. Bandrowski
    • , K. J. Becker
    • , T. L. Becker
    • , S. Bendall
    • , C. A. Bennett
    • , H. Bloomenthal
    • , D. Blum
    • , W. V. Boynton
    • , J. Brodbeck
    • , K. N. Burke
    • , M. Chojnacki
    • , A. Colpo
    • , J. Contreras
    • , J. Cutts
    • , C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny
    • , D. Dean
    • , D. N. DellaGiustina
    • , B. Diallo
    • , D. Drinnon
    • , K. Drozd
    • , H. L. Enos
    • , R. Enos
    • , C. Fellows
    • , T. Ferro
    • , M. R. Fisher
    • , G. Fitzgibbon
    • , M. Fitzgibbon
    • , J. Forelli
    • , T. Forrester
    • , I. Galinsky
    • , R. Garcia
    • , A. Gardner
    • , D. R. Golish
    • , N. Habib
    • , D. Hamara
    • , D. Hammond
    • , K. Hanley
    • , K. Harshman
    • , C. W. Hergenrother
    • , K. Herzog
    • , D. Hill
    • , C. Hoekenga
    • , S. Hooven
    • , E. S. Howell
    • , E. Huettner
    • , A. Janakus
    • , J. Jones
    • , T. R. Kareta
    • , J. Kidd
    • , K. Kingsbury
    • , S. S. Balram-Knutson
    • , L. Koelbel
    • , J. Kreiner
    • , D. Lambert
    • , D. S. Lauretta
    • , C. Lewin
    • , B. Lovelace
    • , M. Loveridge
    • , M. Lujan
    • , C. K. Maleszewski
    • , R. Malhotra
    • , K. Marchese
    • , E. McDonough
    • , N. Mogk
    • , V. Morrison
    • , E. Morton
    • , R. Munoz
    • , J. Nelson
    • , M. C. Nolan
    • , J. Padilla
    • , R. Pennington
    • , A. Polit
    • , N. Ramos
    • , V. Reddy
    • , M. Riehl
    • , B. Rizk
    • , H. L. Roper
    • , S. Salazar
    • , S. R. Schwartz
    • , S. Selznick
    • , N. Shultz
    • , P. H. Smith
    • , S. Stewart
    • , S. Sutton
    • , T. Swindle
    • , Y. H. Tang
    • , M. Westermann
    • , C. W. V. Wolner
    • , D. Worden
    • , T. Zega
    • , Z. Zeszut
    • , A. Bjurstrom
    • , L. Bloomquist
    • , C. Dickinson
    • , E. Keates
    • , J. Liang
    • , V. Nifo
    • , A. Taylor
    • , F. Teti
    • , M. Caplinger
    • , H. Bowles
    • , S. Carter
    • , S. Dickenshied
    • , D. Doerres
    • , T. Fisher
    • , W. Hagee
    • , J. Hill
    • , M. Miner
    • , D. Noss
    • , N. Piacentine
    • , M. Smith
    • , A. Toland
    • , P. Wren
    • , M. Bernacki
    • , D. Pino Munoz
    • , S.-i. Watanabe
    • , S. A. Sandford
    • , A. Aqueche
    • , B. Ashman
    • , M. Barker
    • , A. Bartels
    • , K. Berry
    • , B. Bos
    • , R. Burns
    • , A. Calloway
    • , R. Carpenter
    • , N. Castro
    • , R. Cosentino
    • , J. Donaldson
    • , J. P. Dworkin
    • , J. Elsila Cook
    • , C. Emr
    • , D. Everett
    • , D. Fennell
    • , K. Fleshman
    • , D. Folta
    • , D. Gallagher
    • , J. Garvin
    • , K. Getzandanner
    • , D. Glavin
    • , S. Hull
    • , K. Hyde
    • , H. Ido
    • , A. Ingegneri
    • , N. Jones
    • , P. Kaotira
    • , L. F. Lim
    • , A. Liounis
    • , C. Lorentson
    • , D. Lorenz
    • , J. Lyzhoft
    • , E. M. Mazarico
    • , R. Mink
    • , W. Moore
    • , M. Moreau
    • , S. Mullen
    • , J. Nagy
    • , G. Neumann
    • , J. Nuth
    • , D. Poland
    • , D. C. Reuter
    • , L. Rhoads
    • , S. Rieger
    • , D. Rowlands
    • , D. Sallitt
    • , A. Scroggins
    • , G. Shaw
    • , A. A. Simon
    • , J. Swenson
    • , P. Vasudeva
    • , M. Wasser
    • , R. Zellar
    • , J. Grossman
    • , G. Johnston
    • , M. Morris
    • , J. Wendel
    • , A. Burton
    • , L. P. Keller
    • , L. McNamara
    • , S. Messenger
    • , K. Nakamura-Messenger
    • , A. Nguyen
    • , K. Righter
    • , E. Queen
    • , K. Bellamy
    • , K. Dill
    • , S. Gardner
    • , M. Giuntini
    • , B. Key
    • , J. Kissell
    • , D. Patterson
    • , D. Vaughan
    • , B. Wright
    • , R. W. Gaskell
    • , L. Le Corre
    • , J.-Y. Li
    • , J. L. Molaro
    • , E. E. Palmer
    • , M. A. Siegler
    • , P. Tricarico
    • , J. R. Weirich
    • , X.-D. Zou
    • , T. Ireland
    • , K. Tait
    • , P. Bland
    • , S. Anwar
    • , N. Bojorquez-Murphy
    • , P. R. Christensen
    • , C. W. Haberle
    • , G. Mehall
    • , K. Rios
    • , I. Franchi
    • , B. Rozitis
    • , C. B. Beddingfield
    • , J. Marshall
    • , D. N. Brack
    • , A. S. French
    • , J. W. McMahon
    • , D. J. Scheeres
    • , E. R. Jawin
    • , T. J. McCoy
    • , S. Russell
    • , M. Killgore
    • , W. F. Bottke
    • , V. E. Hamilton
    • , H. H. Kaplan
    • , K. J. Walsh
    • , J. L. Bandfield
    • , B. C. Clark
    • , M. Chodas
    • , M. Lambert
    • , R. A. Masterson
    • , M. G. Daly
    • , J. Freemantle
    • , J. A. Seabrook
    • , O. S. Barnouin
    • , K. Craft
    • , R. T. Daly
    • , C. Ernst
    • , R. C. Espiritu
    • , M. Holdridge
    • , M. Jones
    • , A. H. Nair
    • , L. Nguyen
    • , J. Peachey
    • , M. E. Perry
    • , J. Plescia
    • , J. H. Roberts
    • , R. Steele
    • , R. Turner
    • , J. Backer
    • , K. Edmundson
    • , J. Mapel
    • , M. Milazzo
    • , S. Sides
    • , C. Manzoni
    • , B. May
    • , M. Delbo’
    • , G. Libourel
    • , P. Michel
    • , A. Ryan
    • , F. Thuillet
    •  & B. Marty
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It remains controversial whether or not impact melt sheets produced by asteroid impacts were able to undergo large-scale igneous differentiation. Here the authors present evidence for large igneous differentiation in one of these sheets and argue that this process has contributed to the evolution and lithological diversity of the proto-crusts on terrestrial planets.

    • Rais Latypov
    • , Sofya Chistyakova
    • , Richard Grieve
    •  & Hannu Huhma
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The estimation of volcanic contribution to climate variability requires identification of global-scale eruptions. Here the authors present a new 2600-year chronology of stratospheric volcanic events that relies on isotopic signature of ice core sulfate, that improves ice core volcanic reconstruction.

    • E. Gautier
    • , J. Savarino
    • , J. Hoek
    • , J. Erbland
    • , N. Caillon
    • , S. Hattori
    • , N. Yoshida
    • , E. Albalat
    • , F. Albarede
    •  & J. Farquhar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A new regime of planetary magnetic fields was revealed through the MESSENGER spacecraft mission to Mercury. Here, the authors present a numerical dynamo model that can re-produce both the axisymmetric and anomalously axially offset dipolar magnetic field of Mercury.

    • Futoshi Takahashi
    • , Hisayoshi Shimizu
    •  & Hideo Tsunakawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A planetary-scale streak structure in the Venusian lower-cloud layer was observed by the Akatsuki orbiter. Here the authors present numerical simulations that reproduce such structure and reveal that a low-stability layer, which induces baroclinic disturbances, is essential for its formation.

    • Hiroki Kashimura
    • , Norihiko Sugimoto
    • , Masahiro Takagi
    • , Yoshihisa Matsuda
    • , Wataru Ohfuchi
    • , Takeshi Enomoto
    • , Kensuke Nakajima
    • , Masaki Ishiwatari
    • , Takao M. Sato
    • , George L. Hashimoto
    • , Takehiko Satoh
    • , Yoshiyuki O. Takahashi
    •  & Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Radial diffusion is the only mechanism considered to accelerate trapped electrons to relativistic energies in Saturn’s magnetic field, forming radiation belts. Here the authors show another mechanism, electron acceleration via Doppler shifted cyclotron resonant interaction with Z-mode waves, which can form radiation belts inside the orbit of Enceladus.

    • E. E. Woodfield
    • , R. B. Horne
    • , S. A. Glauert
    • , J. D. Menietti
    • , Y. Y. Shprits
    •  & W. S. Kurth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A unified model for the formation of martian rock types is required to understand Mars’s formation and evolution. Here the authors show that nakhlite and chassignite meteorites originate from melting of metasomatized depleted mantle lithosphere, whereas shergottite melts originate from deep plume sources.

    • James M. D. Day
    • , Kimberly T. Tait
    • , Arya Udry
    • , Frédéric Moynier
    • , Yang Liu
    •  & Clive R. Neal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Earth degassing of CO2-rich fluids contributes significantly to the global carbon budget but its link to tectonic regimes remains unclear. Here, the authors use global geological datasets to show that there is a positive spatial correlation between CO2 discharges and extensional tectonic regimes.

    • Giancarlo Tamburello
    • , Silvia Pondrelli
    • , Giovanni Chiodini
    •  & Dmitri Rouwet
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Red beds contain reduction spheroids that formed underground millions of years ago and whose origin remains poorly constrained. Here the authors use uranium isotopes to identify ancient fingerprints of bacteria in these features, confirming that they were produced by subsurface life in the geological past.

    • Sean McMahon
    • , Ashleigh v. S. Hood
    • , John Parnell
    •  & Stephen Bowden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The reaction of hydroxyl and methylperoxy radicals has recently been suggested as the source of missing methanol in the remote troposphere. Here, the authors present direct experimental measurements demonstrating the reaction leads to further underprediction of modelled methanol.

    • Rebecca L. Caravan
    • , M. Anwar H. Khan
    • , Judit Zádor
    • , Leonid Sheps
    • , Ivan O. Antonov
    • , Brandon Rotavera
    • , Krupa Ramasesha
    • , Kendrew Au
    • , Ming-Wei Chen
    • , Daniel Rösch
    • , David L. Osborn
    • , Christa Fittschen
    • , Coralie Schoemaecker
    • , Marius Duncianu
    • , Asma Grira
    • , Sebastien Dusanter
    • , Alexandre Tomas
    • , Carl J. Percival
    • , Dudley E. Shallcross
    •  & Craig A. Taatjes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Correlations between prehistoric eruptions and other phenomena depend on accurate dating of the eruption. Here the authors show that magmatic CO2 in groundwater can bias radiocarbon ages for eruptions and that plateaux of carbon isotopic values in tree ring sequences biased by magmatic CO2 foreshadow major eruptions.

    • Richard N. Holdaway
    • , Brendan Duffy
    •  & Ben Kennedy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    With the discovery of large rocky exoplanets called Super-Earths, questions have arisen regarding the properties of their interiors and their ability to produce a magnetic field. Here, the authors show that under high pressure, molten silicates are semi-metallic and that magma oceans would host a dynamo process.

    • François Soubiran
    •  & Burkhard Militzer