Energy modelling

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Machine learning has the potential to significantly speed-up the discovery of new materials in synthetic materials chemistry. Here the authors combine unsupervised machine learning and crystal structure prediction to predict a novel quaternary lithium solid electrolyte that is then synthesized.

    • Andrij Vasylenko
    • , Jacinthe Gamon
    •  & Matthew J. Rosseinsky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Over 100 countries have set or are considering net-zero emissions targets. Here, the authors show that a country’s potential for negative emissions and methodological issues affect when countries can reach net-zero, calling for clear internationally agreed definitions and accounting methods.

    • Heleen L. van Soest
    • , Michel G. J. den Elzen
    •  & Detlef P. van Vuuren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Power grid frequencies mirror the state of the grid. Here, Rydin Gorjão et al. analyse measurements of power grid frequencies across areas and continents and uncover scaling laws of their fluctuations and spatio-temporal dynamics, which could aid the design, operation and control of power systems.

    • Leonardo Rydin Gorjão
    • , Richard Jumar
    •  & Benjamin Schäfer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    For a given carbon budget between 2020 and 2050, different transformation rates for the European energy system yield starkly different results. Here the authors show that strongly reducing emissions in the first decade is cost-effective and entails additional benefits.

    • Marta Victoria
    • , Kun Zhu
    •  & Martin Greiner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Implementation of Central European electricity targets will redistribute regional benefits and burdens. Here the authors show that the aims of cost-efficiency, regional equality, and renewable electricity generation have vastly different implementation pathways, impacts, and trade-offs.

    • Jan-Philipp Sasse
    •  & Evelina Trutnevyte
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The intermittency of solar resources is one of the primary challenges for the large-scale integration of the renewable energy. Here Yin et al. used satellite data and climate model outputs to evaluate the geographic patterns of future solar power reliability, highlighting the tradeoff between the maximum potential power and the power reliability.

    • Jun Yin
    • , Annalisa Molini
    •  & Amilcare Porporato
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The long-term availability of lithium in the event of significant demand growth of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is important to assess. Here the authors assess lithium demand and supply challenges of a long-term energy transition using 18 scenarios, developed by combining 8 demand and 4 supply variations.

    • Peter Greim
    • , A. A. Solomon
    •  & Christian Breyer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The allocation of remaining fossil fuel production has stimulated a discussion around issues of equitable allocation but the implications of different options are unclear. Here the authors show that shifting production to low-medium human development regions has limited economic benefits under strong climate policy.

    • Steve Pye
    • , Siân Bradley
    •  & Paul Ekins
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cooling demand project largely ignores the role of humidity. Here the authors show that in many of the high energy consuming states, projections based on air temperature alone underestimates cooling demand by as much as 10–15% under both present and future climate scenarios, due to the neglected role of humidity.

    • Debora Maia-Silva
    • , Rohini Kumar
    •  & Roshanak Nateghi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Decoupling emission reduction target determination, air pollution modelling, and health benefit estimation complicates control strategy design. Here an integrated approach identifies strategies to reduce health damages of air pollution, showing that benefits can be achieved cost-effectively by electrifying sources with high primary PM2.5 emission intensities.

    • Yang Ou
    • , J. Jason West
    •  & Daniel H. Loughlin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There lacks a consistent and holistic evaluation of co-benefits of different mitigation pathways in studies on Integrated Assessment Models. Here the authors quantify environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of a portfolio of alternative power sector decarbonisation pathways and show that the scale of co-benefits as well as profiles of adverse side-effects depend strongly on technology choice.

    • Gunnar Luderer
    • , Michaja Pehl
    •  & Edgar G. Hertwich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The plant-by-plant retirement needs are not well-understood yet to achieve the rapid transition away from coal use. Here the authors found that operational lifetimes of existing units must be reduced to approximately 35 years to keep warming well below 2 °C or 20 years for 1.5 °C, even if no new capacity comes online.

    • Ryna Yiyun Cui
    • , Nathan Hultman
    •  & Christine Shearer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft (VTOLs), or “flying cars” can shorten commute time and could play a niche role in sustainable mobility. The authors estimate that over long distances, fully-loaded electric VTOL taxis could result in fewer GHG emissions than average occupancy ground-based cars.

    • Akshat Kasliwal
    • , Noah J. Furbush
    •  & Gregory A. Keoleian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The technical and economic viability of renewable energy (RE) based energy system is understudied. Here the authors utilized a LUT Energy System Transition Model to indicate that a carbon neutral electricity system can be built in all global regions in an economically feasible way but requires evolutionary changes for the following 35 years.

    • Dmitrii Bogdanov
    • , Javier Farfan
    •  & Christian Breyer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    End-product toxicity, culture contamination, and energy efficient product recovery are long-standing issues in bioprocessing. Here, the authors address these problems using a fermentation strategy that combines microbial production of branched alcohols with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    • Jason T. Boock
    • , Adam J. E. Freedman
    •  & Janelle R. Thompson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Communication networks and power grids may be subject to cascading failures which can lead to outages. Here the authors propose to investigate cascades using dynamical transients of electrical power grids, thereby identifying possible vulnerabilities that might remain undetected with any static approach.

    • Benjamin Schäfer
    • , Dirk Witthaut
    •  & Vito Latora
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrocatalysis offers important opportunities for clean fuel production, but uncovering the chemistry at the electrode surface remains a challenge. Here, the authors exploit a single-nanosheet electrode to perform in-situ measurements of water oxidation electrocatalysis and reveal a crucial interaction with oxygen.

    • Peiyao Wang
    • , Mengyu Yan
    •  & Liqiang Mai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of ceria for two-step thermochemical water splitting. Here, the authors report a large and different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in f orbitals.

    • S. Shahab Naghavi
    • , Antoine A. Emery
    •  & Chris Wolverton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Climate change may alter building energy demand. Here, the authors quantify changes in residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles County and find that rising temperatures may increase electricity demand by 41–87% between 2020 and 2060, but improved efficiency could lower this increase to 28%.

    • Janet L. Reyna
    •  & Mikhail V. Chester