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Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment. It considers processes that occur at the population, community and ecosystem levels and has a particular focus on biodiversity.
Steroid biomarkers provide evidence for a rapid rise of marine planktonic algae between 659 and 645 million years ago, establishing more efficient energy transfers and driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms.
Intrinsic water-use efficiency (W
) reconstructions using tree rings often disregard developmental changes in W
as trees age. Here, the authors compare W
across varying tree sizes at a fixed CO2 level and show that ignoring developmental changes impacts conclusions on trees’ W
responses to CO2 or climate.