Cancer prevention

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Appropriate risk models could facilitate risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Here, the authors propose a blood-based microRNA signature observed to have altered expression in pre-diagnostic samples, which might be useful to identify high-risk populations for colorectal cancer screening.

    • Janhavi R. Raut
    • , Ben Schöttker
    •  & Hermann Brenner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin flavonoid which induces apoptosis in cancerous cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here authors use an interdisciplinary approach to show a direct interaction between EGCG and the tumor suppressor p53 and demonstrate that EGCG inhibits ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2.

    • Jing Zhao
    • , Alan Blayney
    •  & Chunyu Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Studies of the genetic association between vitamin D and cancer risk have typically been underpowered. Here the authors analyse this using Mendelian Randomisation with more than 70 vitamin D variants obtained from the UK Biobank and large-scale data from various consortia, confirming null associations between vitamin D and most cancers.

    • Jue-Sheng Ong
    • , Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen
    •  & Stuart MacGregor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Alcohol and smoking are both associated with oral/oropharyngeal cancer risk, but independent effects are unclear given their relatedness. Here, the authors use multivariable Mendelian randomization to show that both alcohol and smoking are independently causal for oral/oropharyngeal cancer.

    • Mark Gormley
    • , Tom Dudding
    •  & Rebecca C. Richmond
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Developing machine learning models that work equally well for all ethnic groups is of crucial importance to health disparity prevention and reduction. Here, using an extensive set of machine learning experiments on cancer omics data, the authors find that transfer learning can improve model performance for data-disadvantaged ethnic groups.

    • Yan Gao
    •  & Yan Cui
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current preclinical models to investigate human HR + breast cancer progression and response to immunotherapy in vivo are limited. Here, the authors demonstrate that mammary tumours driven by a synthetic progestin combined with an oral carcinogen recapitulate several immunobiological features of human HR + breast cancers.

    • Aitziber Buqué
    • , Norma Bloy
    •  & Lorenzo Galluzzi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Germline variants that affect the expression or function of protein-coding regions of cancer genes are associated with cancer susceptibility. Here, the authors show that a larger number of germline variants are present in early-onset cancers, while acquired somatic mutations are prevalent in cancers that develop at older age.

    • Tao Qing
    • , Hussein Mohsen
    •  & Lajos Pusztai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus can lead to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Here, the authors profile the vaginal microbiota in a cohort of non-pregnant young women diagnosed with CIN2 and find that absence of Lactobacillusspp. and presence of a diverse population of strict anaerobes associates with a decreased regression of untreated CIN2 lesions.

    • Anita Mitra
    • , David A. MacIntyre
    •  & Maria Kyrgiou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bats possess an extended lifespan compared to most mammals of their size, and have a low cancer incidence. Here the authors show that several bat species exhibit resistance to genotoxic agents that is in part attributable to high expression of the ABCB1 transporter.

    • Javier Koh
    • , Yoko Itahana
    •  & Koji Itahana
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pancreatic cancer risk increases in obese and diabetic people. In this manuscript, the authors show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases the impact of pancreatic cancer in a mouse model; this effect seems independent of weight loss or decreased hyperglycemia pointing to an involvement of mTOR pathway.

    • Rui He
    • , Yue Yin
    •  & Weizhen Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The link between circulating lipids and breast cancer risk is complex. Here, the authors utilise data from more than 400,000 participants in two-sample Mendelian randomization to assess the link between blood lipids and breast cancer risk, and they find risk-promoting effects of raised LDL-cholesterol and CETP-mediated raised HDL-cholesterol.

    • Christoph Nowak
    •  & Johan Ärnlöv
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Understanding the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on cancer risk is fundamental in determining the intervention and prevention strategies to tackle cancer. Here the authors provide a review of the different factors impacting cancer risk and discuss the limitations of different approaches in evaluating the relative contributions of these factors.

    • Song Wu
    • , Wei Zhu
    •  & Yusuf A Hannun
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ionizing radiation may induce irreparable DNA damage leading to cancer. Here, the authors identify a specific signature of mutations arising in patients exposed to ionizing radiation and suggest that radiation-induced tumorigenesis is associated with higher rates of genome-wide deletions and balanced inversions.

    • Sam Behjati
    • , Gunes Gundem
    •  & Peter J. Campbell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Inflammation can result in the formation of tumours, but the immune system is also involved in the elimination of cancer cells. Here, the authors show that inflammation driven by tumour-specific CD4+T cells results in tumour regression and identify a list of cytokines associated with cancer prevention.

    • Ole Audun Werner Haabeth
    • , Kristina Berg Lorvik
    •  & Alexandre Corthay