Reviews & Analysis

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  • This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence in adults and summarizes its epidemiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Bharucha and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Faecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool and can markedly impair quality of life. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of faecal incontinence in adults as well as its management, patient quality of life and areas for future research.

    • Adil E. Bharucha
    • Charles H. Knowles
    • Paul Enck
    Primer
  • This PrimeView summarizes the mechanisms of spinal muscular atrophy, a progressive disorder that manifests as muscle atrophy and weakness of limb, bulbar, trunk and respiratory muscles.

    PrimeView
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. In this Primer, Mercuri et al. discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening, and treatment of SMA and its effect on patients’ lives.

    • Eugenio Mercuri
    • Charlotte J. Sumner
    • Richard S. Finkel
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms underlying chronic wounds and summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of these wounds. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Falanga and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Chronic wounds are wounds that do not heal in an expected time frame owing to prolonged dysregulated inflammation. In this Primer, Falanga and colleagues review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of chronic wounds as well as their effects on patients’ quality of life.

    • Vincent Falanga
    • Roslyn Rivkah Isseroff
    • Keith Harding
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms underlying multimorbidity and summarizes its epidemiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Skou and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Multimorbidity (two or more coexisting conditions in an individual) has substantial effects on individuals, carers and society. This Primer by Skou and colleagues summarizes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of multimorbidity. Moreover, this Primer summarizes the effect of multimorbidity on quality of life and discusses open research questions for this condition.

    • Søren T. Skou
    • Frances S. Mair
    • Susan M. Smith
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms underlying chronic cough and cough hypersensitivity syndrome, and accompanies the Primer article on this topic by Mazzone et al.

    PrimeView
  • This Primer by Mazzone and colleagues summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough and cough hypersensitivity. This Primer also discusses how cough hypersensitivity and chronic cough affect patients’ quality of life and future research directions for the field.

    • Kian Fan Chung
    • Lorcan McGarvey
    • Stuart B. Mazzone
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology of hepatic encephalopathy, a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in patients with liver disease.

    PrimeView
  • Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in patients with liver disease. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, and discusses how this disorder affects the quality of life of patients.

    • Dieter Häussinger
    • Radha K. Dhiman
    • Hendrik Vilstrup
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of genetic pain loss disorders and accompanies the Primer on this topic by Kurth et al.

    PrimeView
  • Genetic pain loss disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by reduced pain sensation. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

    • Annette Lischka
    • Petra Lassuthova
    • Ingo Kurth
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and summarizes its epidemiology, diagnosis and pathophysiology. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Zani and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a rare birth defect associated with cardiopulmonary complications and high mortality and morbidity. This Primer describes the epidemiology and mechanisms of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and discusses diagnosis, management and quality of life for patients.

    • Augusto Zani
    • Wendy K. Chung
    • Richard Keijzer
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms and pathophysiology of trachoma and summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this disease. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Solomon and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Trachoma, caused by infection with conjunctival strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most common infectious cause of blindness. This Primer summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of trachoma as well as its management, disease control and elimination, and key areas for future research.

    • Anthony W. Solomon
    • Matthew J. Burton
    • Lamine Traoré
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of hypothyroidism and accompanies the Primer article on hypothyroidism by Chaker et al.

    PrimeView
  • Hypothyroidism is a common condition of insufficient thyroid hormone production or metabolism, which can be life-threatening if untreated. This Primer reviews hypothyroidism epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, screening and prevention programmes, current treatment approaches, and areas for additional research.

    • Layal Chaker
    • Salman Razvi
    • Robin P. Peeters
    Primer