Browse Articles

  • News & Views |

    Nonresolving inflammation underpins several prevalent diseases, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease. The resolution of inflammation is an active process that tempers pro-inflammatory pathways and promotes tissue repair. Understanding the mechanisms that boost endogenous resolution is important for the design of new treatment strategies for nonresolving diseases.

    • Gabrielle Fredman
  • Review Article |

    Neuroimmune crosstalk has a potential role in the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension. Parati and colleagues discuss the interplay between the bone marrow, microglia and immune mediators, in particular through mechanisms involving cytokines and peptides, such as neuropeptide Y, substance P, angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1–7).

    • Laura Calvillo
    • , Mariela M. Gironacci
    • , Lia Crotti
    • , Pier Luigi Meroni
    •  & Gianfranco Parati
  • Review Article |

    Various models of cardiac arrhythmia have been developed in several different animal species to study the mechanisms of disease. In this Review, Clauss and colleagues summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the models and species used in arrhythmia research and provide guidance to investigators planning experiments in this field.

    • Sebastian Clauss
    • , Christina Bleyer
    • , Dominik Schüttler
    • , Philipp Tomsits
    • , Simone Renner
    • , Nikolai Klymiuk
    • , Reza Wakili
    • , Steffen Massberg
    • , Eckhard Wolf
    •  & Stefan Kääb
  • Research Highlight |

    Functional connectivity in the limbic system of the brain, which controls emotion and the autonomic system, is reduced in patients with Takotsubo syndrome compared with healthy individuals.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Research Highlight |

    The activin receptor type 2 (ACTRII) pathway is activated in ageing and heart failure (HF), and inhibition of this catabolic pathway is a potential therapeutic target for HF.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Review Article |

    Endothelin 1 is the most potent vasoconstrictor in the human cardiovascular system. In this Review, Dhaun and Webb discuss the biology of the endothelins and endothelin receptors and how these pathways can be therapeutically targeted in cardiovascular and renal diseases.

    • Neeraj Dhaun
    •  & David J. Webb
  • Research Highlight |

    A novel bioelectronic system that combines automated arrhythmia detection with optogenetic engineering for arrhythmia termination is able to stop atrial fibrillation without the need of electrical shock in a closed-chest experimental model.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Berg and colleagues discuss how to maximize the likelihood of successful resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The ‘chain of survival’ includes immediate recognition of cardiac arrest, early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rapid defibrillation, advanced emergency medical services and integrated post-cardiac arrest care.

    • David D. Berg
    • , Bentley J. Bobrow
    •  & Robert A. Berg
  • Review Article |

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by low-grade, chronic inflammation, and the balance between pro-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving mechanisms dictates the clinical outcomes. This Review discusses the specific causes of inflammation and the mechanisms underlying the impaired resolution of inflammation that characterize clinically dangerous atherosclerotic lesions and highlights the potential of pro-resolving mediator therapy for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Magnus Bäck
    • , Arif Yurdagul Jr
    • , Ira Tabas
    • , Katariina Öörni
    •  & Petri T. Kovanen
  • Research Highlight |

    Singlet molecular oxygen generated by endothelial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 has an important pathophysiological role in mammals in the redox regulation of arterial relaxation and blood pressure during inflammatory conditions through the formation of a tryptophan-derived metabolite

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Review Article |

    Many cardiovascular functions and the onset of adverse cardiovascular events are influenced by the circadian rhythm that exists in all cell types. In this Review, the authors summarize the role of the molecular clock in cardiovascular physiology and disease and suggest how circadian rhythms can be exploited, such as in chronotherapy, or targeted therapeutically.

    • Sandra Crnko
    • , Bastiaan C. Du Pré
    • , Joost P. G. Sluijter
    •  & Linda W. Van Laake
  • Review Article |

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation complicates 20–40% of cardiac surgical procedures. In this Review, the authors summarize the epidemiological and clinical features of postoperative atrial fibrillation, the available pathophysiological evidence and the recommended prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

    • Dobromir Dobrev
    • , Martin Aguilar
    • , Jordi Heijman
    • , Jean-Baptiste Guichard
    •  & Stanley Nattel
  • Research Highlight |

    New research shows that IL-1α and IL-1β have differential effects on atherosclerosis, which is important to consider when selecting anti-inflammatory therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Research Highlight |

    A subset of T cells present in the small intestine modulate systemic metabolism and contribute to cardiovascular disease by limiting the bioavailability of the incretin hormone GLP1.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    Statin therapy significantly reduces major vascular events irrespective of age, but less direct evidence is available on the benefit of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people aged >75 years, according to a meta-analysis by the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the preclinical data on the role of T cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and discusses the therapeutic potential of targeting co-stimulation and inhibition molecules to treat CVD, as well as the evidence of an association between the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cardiovascular toxicity.

    • Karin H. Simons
    • , Alwin de Jong
    • , J. Wouter Jukema
    • , Margreet R. de Vries
    • , Ramon Arens
    •  & Paul H. A. Quax
  • Research Highlight |

    Mutations in MYBPC3 cause increased cardiac contractility, reduced relaxation and excessive energy consumption characteristic of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by disrupting normal myosin conformations. These abnormalities can be corrected by pharmacological targeting of myosin function.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
  • Research Highlight |

    Mobilization of regulatory T cells to the site of myocardial infarction can be promoted with the use of a CXCR4 blocker, and the regulatory T cells attenuate inflammatory gene expression in monocytes and macrophages and augment infarct repair.

    • Gregory B. Lim
  • Comment |

    LDL cholesterol is an important contributor to the risk of coronary heart disease, and its measurement is central to evaluating the effects of lipid-modifying therapies. Several ‘LDL-cholesterol’ assays exist but their methodologies differ, leading to between-assay heterogeneity in values of ‘LDL cholesterol’. We advocate the need for awareness of the potential implications.

    • Michael V. Holmes
    •  & Mika Ala-Korpela
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors summarize mechanoregulated pathways in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts that lead to altered gene expression and cell remodelling under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. They also discuss the use of systems modelling to discover new therapies to target mechanosignalling in heart disease.

    • Jeffrey J. Saucerman
    • , Philip M. Tan
    • , Kyle S. Buchholz
    • , Andrew D. McCulloch
    •  & Jeffrey H. Omens
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, Boffa and Koschinsky discuss the role of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) as a risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve disease, highlighting the important function of oxidized phospholipid modifications of Lp(a), which elicit harmful signalling processes in the arterial wall and the valve leaflet, in mediating the effects of this lipoprotein on both disorders.

    • Michael B. Boffa
    •  & Marlys L. Koschinsky
  • Review Article |

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a family of 28 nonselective cationic channels that are heterogeneously expressed in different regions and cell types of the heart. In this Review, the authors summarize the various physiological and pathological cardiac processes in which TRP channels are involved.

    • Thomas Hof
    • , Sébastien Chaigne
    • , Alice Récalde
    • , Laurent Sallé
    • , Fabien Brette
    •  & Romain Guinamard
  • Review Article |

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a common complication after surgical prosthetic valve implantation. This Review details the role of cardiac imaging in the assessment and management of PVL, summarizes the clinical evidence for percutaneous closure of PVL and compares this procedure with surgical closure.

    • Joel P. Giblett
    • , Bushra S. Rana
    • , Leonard M. Shapiro
    •  & Patrick A. Calvert
  • Year in Review |

    The VITAL trial showed that neither vitamin D nor fish oil supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Conversely, current evidence supports the benefits of multiple dietary patterns, especially the Mediterranean diet, in primary prevention of CVD. Health effects of low-carbohydrate diets depend on the food sources of macronutrients.

    • Frank B. Hu
  • Year in Review |

    More than 150 years after acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized by French chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, aspirin is still one of the most prescribed medications worldwide. In 2018, several trials have suggested that the role of aspirin in the contemporary era might be less pre-eminent than in previous decades.

    • Gilles Montalescot
  • Year in Review |

    Precision cardiology is a vision of a health-care approach that identifies the optimal course of care for each patient. Although precision cardiology is still in its nascent stage, new approaches and methodologies are being developed to achieve this goal and to overcome technical and implementation barriers. In 2018, several high-impact studies made progress in this direction.

    • Natalia Trayanova
  • Year in Review |

    The main advances in interventional cardiology in 2018 include the new European guidelines on revascularization, new developments in the treatment of cardiogenic shock, novel stent technology from Asia and clinical trial data showing no benefit of dropping aspirin after stenting.

    • Andreas Baumbach
  • Year in Review |

    A number of papers published in 2018 have provided important information expected to influence clinical practice, particularly for the management of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure caused by ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at low surgical risk.

    • Ottavio Alfieri
  • Year in Review |

    Considerable evidence supports a role for low-grade chronic inflammation in the atherothrombotic process, from plaque initiation to acute plaque rupture preceding myocardial infarction. Publications in 2018 revealed both the promise and challenges of targeting inflammation to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and highlighted the importance of understanding the mechanistic diversity of inflammatory pathways contributing to atherosclerosis.

    • Kathryn J. Moore
  • Review Article |

    Fully bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) were designed to overcome the limitations of metallic drug-eluting stents, but long-term results with these devices have been disappointing. In this Review, the authors discuss the available preclinical and clinical data for BRS and how this information can inform the development of next-generation BRS.

    • Hiroyuki Jinnouchi
    • , Sho Torii
    • , Atsushi Sakamoto
    • , Frank D. Kolodgie
    • , Renu Virmani
    •  & Aloke V. Finn
  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes the mechanisms of ectopic calcification processes in the cardiovascular system, with an emphasis on emerging knowledge obtained from advances in imaging methods, experimental models and multiomics-generated big data. This Review highlights the potential and challenges of artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning to integrate imaging and mechanistic data to identify biomarkers and effective treatments for cardiovascular calcification

    • Maximillian A. Rogers
    •  & Elena Aikawa