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  • In this Review, Gatsiou and Stellos summarize the current knowledge on RNA modifications in cardiovascular health and disease, discussing their effect on cardiovascular biology and function, and the potential for development and application of epitranscriptome-based prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cardiovascular disease.

    • Aikaterini Gatsiou
    • Konstantinos Stellos
    Review Article
  • Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells specific for the cardiac protein α-myosin heavy chain have a key role in immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-associated myocarditis, according to a study published in Nature.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • In patients with paroxysmal, untreated atrial fibrillation (AF), first-line cryoballoon ablation is associated with a lower incidence of persistent AF compared with antiarrhythmic drug therapy, according to the 3-year follow-up data from the EARLY-AF trial.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • In patients with chronic limb-threatening ischaemia who had an adequate conduit for vein bypass, bypass surgery is associated with fewer adverse events or deaths than an endovascular procedure, according to findings from the BEST-CLI trial.

    • Karina Huynh
    Research Highlight
  • The IRONMAN trial adds further support to the known benefits of intravenous iron therapy in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, but narrowly misses the primary end point of hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular death.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • Olpasiran, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that reduces lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) production in the liver, administered every 12 weeks induces a pronounced and sustained decrease in the plasma levels of Lp(a) in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, according to findings from the OCEAN(a)-DOSE trial.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • Some clinical observations suggest that female patients are more susceptible to myocarditis induced by immune-checkpoint-inhibitor therapies. A new study recapitulates this female predisposition in mice and provides mechanistic and biological plausibility, and suggests that hormone therapy could help to treat myocarditis by promoting the expression of MANF, a protein related to the unfolded protein response.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • Screening for atrial fibrillation in high-risk populations could contribute to the prevention of cardioembolic stroke. Randomized trials of atrial fibrillation screening are directionally favourable but underpowered for stroke risk assessment; nevertheless, meta-analysis results are encouraging. Consumer-facing wearable devices can detect unknown atrial fibrillation at scale, although they are mostly used by individuals at low risk of stroke.

    • Ben Freedman
    • Renate B. Schnabel
    Clinical Outlook
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the mechanical functions of cardiac fibroblasts are an active and necessary component of myocardial growth and homeostasis. In this Review, Van Linthout and colleagues describe cell mechanosensation as a regulator of cardiac maturation and disease, and summarize the evidence showing that remodelling of the cardiac extracellular matrix, as a result of disease, can induce changes in the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

    • Maurizio Pesce
    • Georg N. Duda
    • Sophie Van Linthout
    Review Article
  • Originally intended for life-saving salvage therapy, the use of temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices has become increasingly widespread. In this Review, Salter and colleagues discuss the functionality, indications, management and complications associated with temporary MCS in specific clinical scenarios.

    • Benjamin S. Salter
    • Caroline R. Gross
    • Anuradha Lala
    Review Article
  • According to the TIME trial, patients can take standard antihypertensive medications either in the morning or in the evening, because the timing of therapy has no significant effect on major cardiovascular outcomes.

    • Gregory B. Lim
    Research Highlight
  • A synthetic Ganoderma meroterpene derivative protects against obesity-associated atherosclerosis in mice by increasing the abundance of the gut commensal bacterium Parabacteroides merdae and increasing branched-chain amino acid degradation.

    • Irene Fernández-Ruiz
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, the authors summarize the evidence on the different effects of sex and gender on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment responses of patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure. In addition, they highlight unexplored areas of sex-related and gender-related factors in cardiovascular disease such as in individuals with gender dysphoria.

    • Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
    • Catherine Gebhard
    Review Article