Volume 12 Issue 8, August 2016

Volume 12 Issue 8

Experiments showing that electron dynamics can be controlled on attosecond timescales suggest that wide-bandgap semiconductors could be exploited for petahertz signal processing technologies. Letter p741; News & Views p724 IMAGE: HIROKI MASHIKO COVER DESIGN: ALLEN BEATTIE

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    During its 25 years of existence, arXiv has exceeded every expectation in terms of growth and its impact on how science is disseminated.

Thesis

Books and Arts

Interview

  • Interview |

    Paul Ginsparg shares his thoughts about the future of the preprint server he created 25 years ago.

    • Iulia Georgescu

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    A movie of ultrafast electron dynamics driven by lightwaves shows that wide-bandgap semiconductors could form the building blocks of petahertz electronic devices.

    • Oliver D. Mücke
  • News & Views |

    Owing to the extreme sensitivity of a microscopic cantilever to optical forces, it is possible to uncover the fine structure of optical momenta and associated mechanical effects in evanescent fields.

    • Etienne Brasselet
  • News & Views |

    Jammed states in growing yeast populations share intriguing similarities with amorphous solids, despite being generated through self-replication. The impact this behaviour has on cell division highlights one way that physical forces regulate biological function.

    • Shreyas Gokhale
    •  & Jeff Gore
  • News & Views |

    Due to their chirality, the massless fermions inside Weyl semimetals can take unusual paths that are governed by chiral dynamics, potentially providing a direct method to explore their topological nature.

    • Xi Dai
  • News & Views |

    The detection of a discrete knot of particle emission from the active galaxy M81* reveals that black hole accretion is self-similar with regard to mass, producing the same knotty jets irrespective of black hole mass and accretion rate.

    • José L. Gómez

Letters

  • Letter |

    The change in pitch of a passing car engine is a classic example of the translational Doppler effect, but rotational Doppler shifts can also arise, as shown for circularly polarized light passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal.

    • Guixin Li
    • , Thomas Zentgraf
    •  & Shuang Zhang
  • Letter |

    Experiments showing that electron dynamics can be controlled on attosecond timescales suggest that wide-bandgap semiconductors could be exploited for petahertz signal processing technologies.

    • Hiroki Mashiko
    • , Katsuya Oguri
    • , Tomohiko Yamaguchi
    • , Akira Suda
    •  & Hideki Gotoh
  • Letter |

    A phenomenon known as magnetic fragmentation is observed by means of neutron scattering in the spin ice candidate Nd2Zr2O7.

    • S. Petit
    • , E. Lhotel
    • , B. Canals
    • , M. Ciomaga Hatnean
    • , J. Ollivier
    • , H. Mutka
    • , E. Ressouche
    • , A. R. Wildes
    • , M. R. Lees
    •  & G. Balakrishnan
  • Letter |

    A scanning tunnelling microscopy study demonstrates that one-dimensional charge density waves can form at twin boundaries in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide.

    • Sara Barja
    • , Sebastian Wickenburg
    • , Zhen-Fei Liu
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Hyejin Ryu
    • , Miguel M. Ugeda
    • , Zahid Hussain
    • , Zhi-Xun Shen
    • , Sung-Kwan Mo
    • , Ed Wong
    • , Miquel B. Salmeron
    • , Feng Wang
    • , Michael F. Crommie
    • , D. Frank Ogletree
    • , Jeffrey B. Neaton
    •  & Alexander Weber-Bargioni
  • Letter |

    Populations of growing yeast are shown to undergo a jamming transition typically observed in gravity-driven granular flows. The pressures generated by intercellular forces are found to be large enough to destroy the cells’ micro-environment.

    • Morgan Delarue
    • , Jörn Hartung
    • , Carl Schreck
    • , Pawel Gniewek
    • , Lucy Hu
    • , Stephan Herminghaus
    •  & Oskar Hallatschek
  • Letter |

    Radio and X-ray observations of the jet emission from M81, the nearest low-luminosity supermassive black hole, reveal a knot structure. The knot is unexpected, as models generally assume a continuous and compact jet.

    • Ashley L. King
    • , Jon M. Miller
    • , Michael Bietenholz
    • , Kayhan Gültekin
    • , Mark T. Reynolds
    • , Amy Mioduszewski
    • , Michael Rupen
    •  & Norbert Bartel

Articles

  • Article |

    Entanglement in many-body systems is notoriously hard to quantify, but in certain situations relevant to atomic and condensed-matter experiments an entanglement witness, the quantum Fisher information, becomes measurable by means of the dynamic susceptibility.

    • Philipp Hauke
    • , Markus Heyl
    • , Luca Tagliacozzo
    •  & Peter Zoller
  • Article |

    Atoms in optical lattices are interesting for quantum technologies but engineering entanglement between atom pairs is difficult. Using the double-well potentials of a superlattice, the generation and detection of entanglement is more straightforward.

    • Han-Ning Dai
    • , Bing Yang
    • , Andreas Reingruber
    • , Xiao-Fan Xu
    • , Xiao Jiang
    • , Yu-Ao Chen
    • , Zhen-Sheng Yuan
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan
  • Article |

    It takes extreme sensitivity to measure the elementary excitations in liquid helium-4. An optomechanical cavity with a thin film of superfluid inside can be used to both observe and control phonons in real time.

    • G. I. Harris
    • , D. L. McAuslan
    • , E. Sheridan
    • , Y. Sachkou
    • , C. Baker
    •  & W. P. Bowen
  • Article |

    Defects affect materials’ properties. A method is now presented for studying dynamic processes during the growth of thin films — specifically, the evolution of defects — based on the coherent mixing of bulk and surface X-ray scattering signals.

    • Jeffrey G. Ulbrandt
    • , Meliha G. Rainville
    • , Christa Wagenbach
    • , Suresh Narayanan
    • , Alec R. Sandy
    • , Hua Zhou
    • , Karl F. Ludwig Jr
    •  & Randall L. Headrick
  • Article |

    Inertial confinement fusion, based on laser-heating a deuterium–tritium mixture, is one of the approaches towards energy production from fusion reactions. Now, record energy-yield experiments are reported—bringing us closer to ignition conditions.

    • O. A. Hurricane
    • , D. A. Callahan
    • , D. T. Casey
    • , E. L. Dewald
    • , T. R. Dittrich
    • , T. Döppner
    • , S. Haan
    • , D. E. Hinkel
    • , L. F. Berzak Hopkins
    • , O. Jones
    • , A. L. Kritcher
    • , S. Le Pape
    • , T. Ma
    • , A. G. MacPhee
    • , J. L. Milovich
    • , J. Moody
    • , A. Pak
    • , H.-S. Park
    • , P. K. Patel
    • , J. E. Ralph
    • , H. F. Robey
    • , J. S. Ross
    • , J. D. Salmonson
    • , B. K. Spears
    • , P. T. Springer
    • , R. Tommasini
    • , F. Albert
    • , L. R. Benedetti
    • , R. Bionta
    • , E. Bond
    • , D. K. Bradley
    • , J. Caggiano
    • , P. M. Celliers
    • , C. Cerjan
    • , J. A. Church
    • , R. Dylla-Spears
    • , D. Edgell
    • , M. J. Edwards
    • , D. Fittinghoff
    • , M. A. Barrios Garcia
    • , A. Hamza
    • , R. Hatarik
    • , H. Herrmann
    • , M. Hohenberger
    • , D. Hoover
    • , J. L. Kline
    • , G. Kyrala
    • , B. Kozioziemski
    • , G. Grim
    • , J. E. Field
    • , J. Frenje
    • , N. Izumi
    • , M. Gatu Johnson
    • , S. F. Khan
    • , J. Knauer
    • , T. Kohut
    • , O. Landen
    • , F. Merrill
    • , P. Michel
    • , A. Moore
    • , S. R. Nagel
    • , A. Nikroo
    • , T. Parham
    • , R. R. Rygg
    • , D. Sayre
    • , M. Schneider
    • , D. Shaughnessy
    • , D. Strozzi
    • , R. P. J. Town
    • , D. Turnbull
    • , P. Volegov
    • , A. Wan
    • , K. Widmann
    • , C. Wilde
    •  & C. Yeamans
  • Article |

    The IceCube neutrino telescope in the South Pole has observed several high-energy neutrinos of undetermined origin. Could the third detected PeV event be from blazar PKS B1424–418?

    • M. Kadler
    • , F. Krauß
    • , K. Mannheim
    • , R. Ojha
    • , C. Müller
    • , R. Schulz
    • , G. Anton
    • , W. Baumgartner
    • , T. Beuchert
    • , S. Buson
    • , B. Carpenter
    • , T. Eberl
    • , P. G. Edwards
    • , D. Eisenacher Glawion
    • , D. Elsässer
    • , N. Gehrels
    • , C. Gräfe
    • , S. Gulyaev
    • , H. Hase
    • , S. Horiuchi
    • , C. W. James
    • , A. Kappes
    • , A. Kappes
    • , U. Katz
    • , A. Kreikenbohm
    • , M. Kreter
    • , I. Kreykenbohm
    • , M. Langejahn
    • , K. Leiter
    • , E. Litzinger
    • , F. Longo
    • , J. E. J. Lovell
    • , J. McEnery
    • , T. Natusch
    • , C. Phillips
    • , C. Plötz
    • , J. Quick
    • , E. Ros
    • , F. W. Stecker
    • , T. Steinbring
    • , J. Stevens
    • , D. J. Thompson
    • , J. Trüstedt
    • , A. K. Tzioumis
    • , S. Weston
    • , J. Wilms
    •  & J. A. Zensus

Measure for Measure

  • Measure for Measure |

    Michel Van Camp and Olivier de Viron are attracted to the fluctuations in the Earth's gravitational pull.

    • Michel Van Camp
    •  & Olivier de Viron