Browse Articles

  • News and Views |

    Recent work finds that reactive oxygen species are generated in cells starved for the nucleobase thymine and contribute to DNA-destructive “thymineless death” mechanisms, which underlie the activities of many drugs, including trimethoprim and sulfa-based antibiotics. Such mechanisms may also apply to cells across the tree of life.

    • Philip J. Hastings
    •  & Susan M. Rosenberg
  • News and Views |

    The incorporation of additional gene circuits into hosts can often lead to unpredicted and undesirable behaviours. Recent work has developed a modelling framework that accounts for host–circuit interactions and can predict a variety of phenotypes at both single-cell and population levels.

    • Sandra J. Aedo
    • , Grant Gelderman
    •  & Mark P. Brynildsen
  • Editorial |

    Increasing research on microbial communities has resulted in massive amounts of data being generated and shared, yet data accessibility, accuracy and thoroughness remain problematic and can be a substantial obstacle for scientists looking to explore existing datasets.

  • Comment |

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Richard Henderson and Joachim Frank for the development of cryo-electron microscopy, a technique for high-resolution structural determination of biomolecules in solution that has provided unprecedented insight into the biology of microorganisms.

    • Catherine M. Oikonomou
    •  & Grant J. Jensen
  • News and Views |

    The use of levulinic acid in bioconversion strategies has been limited by the lack of information on the pathways used by microorganisms to degrade it. Now, functional genomics reveals the essential steps for utilization of levulinic acid in Pseudomonas putida.

    • Kristina Haslinger
    •  & Kristala L. J. Prather
  • Article |

    APOBEC3G is shown to induce a potent, non-site-specific interference with reverse transcription through direct interaction with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and host DNA repair machinery is shown to cleave HIV-1 cDNA.

    • Darja Pollpeter
    • , Maddy Parsons
    • , Andrew E. Sobala
    • , Sashika Coxhead
    • , Rupert D. Lang
    • , Annie M. Bruns
    • , Stelios Papaioannou
    • , James M. McDonnell
    • , Luis Apolonia
    • , Jamil A. Chowdhury
    • , Curt M. Horvath
    •  & Michael H. Malim
  • Article |

    A machine-learning approach accounting for methodological differences in studies and complex interactions among taxa allows independent soil studies to be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure.

    • Kelly S. Ramirez
    • , Christopher G. Knight
    • , Mattias de Hollander
    • , Francis Q. Brearley
    • , Bede Constantinides
    • , Anne Cotton
    • , Si Creer
    • , Thomas W. Crowther
    • , John Davison
    • , Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo
    • , Ellen Dorrepaal
    • , David R. Elliott
    • , Graeme Fox
    • , Robert I. Griffiths
    • , Chris Hale
    • , Kyle Hartman
    • , Ashley Houlden
    • , David L. Jones
    • , Eveline J. Krab
    • , Fernando T. Maestre
    • , Krista L. McGuire
    • , Sylvain Monteux
    • , Caroline H. Orr
    • , Wim H. van der Putten
    • , Ian S. Roberts
    • , David A. Robinson
    • , Jennifer D. Rocca
    • , Jennifer Rowntree
    • , Klaus Schlaeppi
    • , Matthew Shepherd
    • , Brajesh K. Singh
    • , Angela L. Straathof
    • , Jennifer M. Bhatnagar
    • , Cécile Thion
    • , Marcel G. A. van der Heijden
    •  & Franciska T. de Vries
  • Letter |

    Zika virus infection of astrocytes in Ifnar –/– mice results in breakdown of the blood–brain barrier and CD8+ effector T-cell infiltration, which limits neuron infection but leads to Zika-virus-associated paralysis.

    • Kellie A. Jurado
    • , Laura J. Yockey
    • , Patrick W. Wong
    • , Sarah Lee
    • , Anita J. Huttner
    •  & Akiko Iwasaki
  • Letter |

    As certain phages can infect some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by binding to their pilins, the bacteria have evolved ways to modify these structures via the addition of O-antigen units or polymers of d-arabinofuranose to block phage attachment.

    • Hanjeong Harvey
    • , Joseph Bondy-Denomy
    • , Hélène Marquis
    • , Kristina M. Sztanko
    • , Alan R. Davidson
    •  & Lori L. Burrows
  • Article |

    How the oral epithelium discriminates pathogens from commensals is unclear. Ephrin A2 is now shown to bind exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is required to mount a proinflammatory and antifungal response.

    • Marc Swidergall
    • , Norma V. Solis
    • , Michail S. Lionakis
    •  & Scott G. Filler
  • Letter |

    To evade autophagy-mediated killing when inside liver cells, the Plasmodium berghei protein UIS3 binds to a key regulator of the autophagy programme, the host protein LC3, and inhibits its interaction with downstream effectors.

    • Eliana Real
    • , Lénia Rodrigues
    • , Ghislain G. Cabal
    • , Francisco J. Enguita
    • , Liliana Mancio-Silva
    • , João Mello-Vieira
    • , Wandy Beatty
    • , Iset M. Vera
    • , Vanessa Zuzarte-Luís
    • , Tiago N. Figueira
    • , Gunnar R. Mair
    •  & Maria M. Mota
  • Article | | open

    Cultivation of a cellulolytic consortium reveals successional community dynamics and the presence of multidomain glycoside hydrolases assembled into stable complexes distinct from cellulosomes, which are produced by a potential pioneer population.

    • Sebastian Kolinko
    • , Yu-Wei Wu
    • , Firehiwot Tachea
    • , Evelyn Denzel
    • , Jennifer Hiras
    • , Raphael Gabriel
    • , Nora Bäcker
    • , Leanne Jade G. Chan
    • , Stephanie A. Eichorst
    • , Dario Frey
    • , Qiushi Chen
    • , Parastoo Azadi
    • , Paul D. Adams
    • , Todd R. Pray
    • , Deepti Tanjore
    • , Christopher J. Petzold
    • , John M. Gladden
    • , Blake A. Simmons
    •  & Steven W. Singer
  • Article |

    This study reports the viral and cellular N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) and N 6,2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) epitranscriptomes during KSHV latent and lytic infection, and shows that lytic replication induces dynamic epitranscriptome reprogramming of host pathways that control this process.

    • Brandon Tan
    • , Hui Liu
    • , Songyao Zhang
    • , Suzane Ramos da Silva
    • , Lin Zhang
    • , Jia Meng
    • , Xiaodong Cui
    • , Hongfeng Yuan
    • , Océane Sorel
    • , Shao-Wu Zhang
    • , Yufei Huang
    •  & Shou-Jiang Gao
  • Letter |

    The cell tropism of noroviruses in vivo remains unclear. Here, the dominant cellular targets during acute norovirus infection of immunocompetent mice are shown to be macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells in the GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    • Katrina R. Grau
    • , Alexa N. Roth
    • , Shu Zhu
    • , Abel Hernandez
    • , Natacha Colliou
    • , Bayli B. DiVita
    • , Drake T. Philip
    • , Cara Riffe
    • , Benoit Giasson
    • , Shannon M. Wallet
    • , Mansour Mohamadzadeh
    •  & Stephanie M. Karst
  • Article |

    Adaptation of the polony method allows numerical abundances of diverse viral groups to be quantified in environmental samples, and reveals that clade B T7-like cyanophages that carry the <Emphasis Type=”Italic”>psbA</Emphasis> gene are more abundant in the Red Sea than clade A phages.

    • Nava Baran
    • , Svetlana Goldin
    • , Ilia Maidanik
    •  & Debbie Lindell
  • News and Views |

    The Uncultivated Bacteria and Archaea dataset is a foundational collection of 7,903 genomes from uncultivated microorganisms. It highlights how microbial diversity is readily recovered using current tools and existing metagenomic datasets to help piece together the tree of life.

    • Lindsey M. Solden
    •  & Kelly C. Wrighton
  • Editorial |

    An increased focus on identifying disease hotspots and pre-emptive intervention will be key to halting outbreaks before they become established, but political and economic obstacles cannot be ignored if ambitious new targets to reduce global cholera mortality tenfold are to be achieved.

  • News and Views |

    Two studies identify circulating monocytes as the primary cellular target of Zika virus infection in human blood. Monocytes are an ideal target as they have the potential to be used as a Trojan horse to infiltrate immune-sheltered tissues, including placenta, testes and the brain, to spread Zika virus.

    • Kellie Ann Jurado
    •  & Akiko Iwasaki