Volume 17 Issue 1, January 2016

Volume 17 Issue 1

This month's Focus features a series of specially commissioned articles that discuss the most recent progress in understanding the ontogeny, functional diversity and activation plasticity of macrophages. See http://www.nature.com/ni/focus/macrophages/. Artwork by Lewis Long depicts Élie Metschnikoff drawings of macrophages, as provided by S.H.E. Kaufmann from Metschnikoff, É. Immunität bei Infektionskrankheiten 1–456 (Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1902).

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    New data redefine macrophages as diverse, polyfunctional and plastic cells that respond to the needs of the tissue at steady state and during disturbed homeostasis.

Reviews

Perspective

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    Low availability of glucose in tumors negatively affects the activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Loss of T cell function under these conditions is mediated by the microRNAs miR-101 and miR-26a, which target expression of the methytransferase EZH2 and thereby diminish the expression of anti-tumor cytokines.

    • Glenn R Bantug
    •  & Christoph Hess
  • News & Views |

    Immune responses are characterized by the concerted actions of both effector mechanisms and regulatory mechanisms. Signaling via the transcription factor STAT1 downstream of receptors for interferons and interleukin 27 (IL-27) can suppress type 2 immune responses induced by group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    • Christina Stehle
    • , Philippe Saikali
    •  & Chiara Romagnani
  • News & Views |

    Understanding cytotoxic T cells has been a major focus of immunology research for decades. Proteomic profiling of these cells now brings them into unprecedented and revealing focus.

    • David E Sanin
    •  & Edward J Pearce

Research Highlights

Articles

  • Article |

    The mechanisms that regulate the tissue-specific localization and functions of innate lymphoid cells are poorly understood. Xiong and colleagues find that CCR10+ innate lymphoid cells are selectively programmed in skin-draining lymph nodes for cutaneous homeostatic regulation.

    • Jie Yang
    • , Shaomin Hu
    • , Luming Zhao
    • , Daniel H Kaplan
    • , Gary H Perdew
    •  & Na Xiong
  • Article |

    Memory TH2 cells are rapidly recruited to tissues after exposure to stimulatory ligands. McKenzie and colleagues demonstrate that ILC2s have an essential role in facilitating TH2 cell memory responses in lung, skin and gut.

    • Timotheus Y F Halim
    • , You Yi Hwang
    • , Seth T Scanlon
    • , Habib Zaghouani
    • , Natalio Garbi
    • , Padraic G Fallon
    •  & Andrew N J McKenzie
  • Article |

    Dysregulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells has been linked to virus-induced asthma. Fritz and colleagues demonstrate that deficiency in signaling via type I interferons in these cells can lead to dysregulated type 2 immunity during respiratory viral infection.

    • Claudia U Duerr
    • , Connor D A McCarthy
    • , Barbara C Mindt
    • , Manuel Rubio
    • , Alexandre P Meli
    • , Julien Pothlichet
    • , Megan M Eva
    • , Jean-François Gauchat
    • , Salman T Qureshi
    • , Bruce D Mazer
    • , Karen L Mossman
    • , Danielle Malo
    • , Ana M Gamero
    • , Silvia M Vidal
    • , Irah L King
    • , Marika Sarfati
    •  & Jörg H Fritz
  • Article |

    The signals that negatively regulate group 2 innate lymphoid cells are incompletely understood. Moro and colleagues show that interferons and IL-27 restrain the function and proliferation of these cells in vitro and in vivo through a mechanism dependent on the transcription factor STAT1.

    • Kazuyo Moro
    • , Hiroki Kabata
    • , Masanobu Tanabe
    • , Satoshi Koga
    • , Natsuki Takeno
    • , Miho Mochizuki
    • , Koichi Fukunaga
    • , Koichiro Asano
    • , Tomoko Betsuyaku
    •  & Shigeo Koyasu
  • Article |

    The TCR-peptide-MHC interface is composed of conserved and diverse regions, but the relative contributions of each in shaping T cell recognition remain unclear. Garcia and colleagues show consistent germline interactions between TCR and MHC, but enough flexibility in the TCR-peptide-MHC interface to allow adjustment for different peptides.

    • Jarrett J Adams
    • , Samanthi Narayanan
    • , Michael E Birnbaum
    • , Sachdev S Sidhu
    • , Sydney J Blevins
    • , Marvin H Gee
    • , Leah V Sibener
    • , Brian M Baker
    • , David M Kranz
    •  & K Christopher Garcia
  • Article |

    Glucose availability is limiting in tumor environments. Zou and colleagues show that reduced glycolytic metabolism in T cells within tumors suppresses expression of the methyltransferase EZH2, which limits production of antitumor effector molecules and enhances T cell apoptosis.

    • Ende Zhao
    • , Tomasz Maj
    • , Ilona Kryczek
    • , Wei Li
    • , Ke Wu
    • , Lili Zhao
    • , Shuang Wei
    • , Joel Crespo
    • , Shanshan Wan
    • , Linda Vatan
    • , Wojciech Szeliga
    • , Irene Shao
    • , Yin Wang
    • , Yan Liu
    • , Sooryanarayana Varambally
    • , Arul M Chinnaiyan
    • , Theodore H Welling
    • , Victor Marquez
    • , Jan Kotarski
    • , Hongbo Wang
    • , Zehua Wang
    • , Yi Zhang
    • , Rebecca Liu
    • , Guobin Wang
    •  & Weiping Zou

Resource

  • Resource |

    Proteomic profiling can provide new insight into the cellular regulation of effector functions. Cantrell and colleagues report discordant mRNA profiles and protein profiles in activated CD8+ T cells and reveal new roles for mTORC1 in regulating the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    • Jens L Hukelmann
    • , Karen E Anderson
    • , Linda V Sinclair
    • , Katarzyna M Grzes
    • , Alejandro Brenes Murillo
    • , Phillip T Hawkins
    • , Len R Stephens
    • , Angus I Lamond
    •  & Doreen A Cantrell