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Comprehensive mapping reveals that functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells targeting multiple regions of SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the resolution phase of both mild and severe COVID-19, and their magnitude correlates with the antibody response.
Costimulatory blockade via the CTLA-4–Ig fusion protein abatacept is beneficial in patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes, but some individuals benefit more than others. A new study reports that the pretreatment abundance of T follicular helper (TFH) cells could predict clinical responses to abatacept.
To trigger an adequate humoral immune response while ensuring self-tolerance, B cell activation is tightly controlled. A new study indicates that an NR4A-enforced built-in brake fine-tunes the early phase of transcriptional reprogramming induced by BCR stimulation.
A vicious cycle, linking obesity with chronic inflammation, fuels the development and exacerbation of metabolic syndrome and other disorders. Modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism via interleukin-1β signaling establishes a runaway positive-feedback loop that brings about and reinforces the sequelae of a high-fat diet.
“The role of cytokines in COVID-19” online symposium was presented on 18 June 2020 by the NIH/FDA Immunology and Cytokine Interest Groups and was purposed to discuss our rapidly changing understanding of COVID-19-related cytokine responses in different stages of infection, including the etiologies, downstream consequences and possible mitigation strategies. The recording is available at https://nci.rev.vbrick.com/sharevideo/03106730-66cc-47ba-870b-f6e6274a998a.
New studies suggest that NKG7 is essential for NK and CD8+ T cell cytotoxic degranulation and CD4+ T cell activation and proinflammatory responses. While the mechanism is yet to be determined, the functional relevance is exciting and opens the possibility of a new target for cellular immunotherapies.
Whether and how thymic tolerance to tissue-restricted antigens (TRA) could be achieved posed a conundrum until Klein and colleagues discovered that medullary thymic epithelial cells were capable of bursts of TRA expression.
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) closely intersect with antitumor immunity. A new study describes how activation of lung-resident ILC2s orchestrates the suppression of natural killer cell–mediated innate antitumor immunity via an eosinophil-mediated metabolic mechanism.
Durable responses to immunotherapy require the development of robust CD8+ T cell memory. A new study indicates that NRP1 differs from other checkpoint receptors as it functions as a checkpoint for the generation of memory.
Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) promote immune defenses against infectious agents. Two studies reveal that GBP1 directly binds to cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bringing caspase-4 to the surface of bacteria to induce pyroptosis.
Antigen escape by solid tumors has limited the efficacy of genetically modified T cells. T cells engineered to secrete the cytokine Flt3L induce the activation of endogenous T cells, enabling a broader repertoire of tumor antigens to be targeted via the expansion of intratumoral antigen presenting cells, significantly improving tumor responses.
CAR T cells are engineered to recognize tumor-specific antigens and kill tumor cells. A study of CAR T cell activation using single-molecule microscopy reveals that CARs fail to efficiently convert antigen binding into early T cell signaling events.
Quantitative systems-level proteomics is cleverly used to reveal a dynamic program of protein turnover in naive and memory CD4+ T cells that, alongside a stockpile of metabolic protein machinery, poises the cells for activation.
Working on the function of a new cytokine always makes for exciting times. Vassili Soumelis and Yong-Jun Liu bring us back to the discovery and functional characterization of human TSLP, in the very stimulating environment of the DNAX Research Institute.
Evolutionary genetic and experimental analyses suggest that mutations causing familial Mediterranean fever have been positively selected in the Middle East, probably because they confer heightened resistance against Yersinia pestis infection.
Nature Immunology’s 20th anniversary is a good opportunity to reminisce about the ImmGen collective endeavor — its goals, successes and horror stories — and the group’s exploration of various modes of scientific publishing.
Caspase-cleaved gasdermin D forms pores in cellular membranes, thus executing proinflammatory cell death by pyroptosis. Disulfiram — a drug used to treat chronic alcoholism — is now found to be an inhibitor of pore formation, which may therapeutically counteract exacerbated inflammation in sepsis and beyond.
Host cell cholesterol is often exploited by pathogens for entry and egress. Two new studies elucidate a new interferon-inducible mechanism by which cells limit plasma membrane cholesterol to promote antibacterial defense.
B cells undergo iterative rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection for high-affinity antigen binding in the germinal center microenvironment. Two new studies provide insights into the temporal and spatial control mechanisms that act within B cells and follicular dendritic cells to jointly govern B cell differentiation and cell traffic within the GC.
A new study reports that TH2-coordinated tissue repair takes precedence over long-term protective immunity in urinary tract infections. Although effective in the interim, this can lead to recurrent infections and bladder dysfunction.
Injury or infection renders patients vulnerable to secondary pneumonia. A new study indicates that SIRP-α triggers prolonged impairment of the phagocytic capacity of alveolar macrophages after the resolution of primary bacterial or viral pneumonia.
Immunologists used to avoid metabolism, but that is no longer possible. Now that we must talk about it, how can we do so in a way that enhances and clarifies our understanding of the role metabolism plays in the immune response?
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) occupy sites of chronic inflammation and suppress CD8+ T cell function. A new study describes the transfer of the metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) to T cells, which mediates this immunosuppressive mechanism.
Despite new vaccines, therapeutics, and the extensive lessons learned from the West African Ebola outbreak, the DRC’s 2018–2020 outbreak has taken nearly 20 months to bring under control. This Comment explores some of the factors that have made this outbreak so complex.