Articles

  • Article |

    Elephant disturbance favours the emergence of larger trees with higher wood density, and thereby increases the aboveground biomass in central African forests by up to 60 t ha–1, according to simulations with the Ecosystem Demography model.

    • Fabio Berzaghi
    • , Marcos Longo
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Stephen Blake
    • , François Bretagnolle
    • , Simone Vieira
    • , Marcos Scaranello
    • , Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza
    •  & Christopher E. Doughty
  • Article |

    Solid ammonium nitrate particles are formed in the upper troposphere during the Asian monsoons, which bring large amounts of ground ammonia to this altitude, according to integrated analyses of measurements on ammoniated aerosol, together with model simulations.

    • Michael Höpfner
    • , Jörn Ungermann
    • , Stephan Borrmann
    • , Robert Wagner
    • , Reinhold Spang
    • , Martin Riese
    • , Gabriele Stiller
    • , Oliver Appel
    • , Anneke M. Batenburg
    • , Silvia Bucci
    • , Francesco Cairo
    • , Antonis Dragoneas
    • , Felix Friedl-Vallon
    • , Andreas Hünig
    • , Sören Johansson
    • , Lukas Krasauskas
    • , Bernard Legras
    • , Thomas Leisner
    • , Christoph Mahnke
    • , Ottmar Möhler
    • , Sergej Molleker
    • , Rolf Müller
    • , Tom Neubert
    • , Johannes Orphal
    • , Peter Preusse
    • , Markus Rex
    • , Harald Saathoff
    • , Fred Stroh
    • , Ralf Weigel
    •  & Ingo Wohltmann
  • Article |

    Permafrost loses carbon at a faster rate than previously thought as climate warms, according to direct soil carbon observations over five years in the field in Alaska’s tundra ecosystem.

    • César Plaza
    • , Elaine Pegoraro
    • , Rosvel Bracho
    • , Gerardo Celis
    • , Kathryn G. Crummer
    • , Jack A. Hutchings
    • , Caitlin E. Hicks Pries
    • , Marguerite Mauritz
    • , Susan M. Natali
    • , Verity G. Salmon
    • , Christina Schädel
    • , Elizabeth E. Webb
    •  & Edward A. G. Schuur
  • Article |

    Controls on the ecological success of marine calcifiers changed from abiotic to biotic in the mid-Jurassic, according an environmental forcing model compared with skeletal taxa.

    • Kilian Eichenseer
    • , Uwe Balthasar
    • , Christopher W. Smart
    • , Julian Stander
    • , Kristian A. Haaga
    •  & Wolfgang Kiessling
  • Article |

    Polluted continental aerosols contain a considerable fraction of ice nucleating particles, suggest analyses of satellite observations and simulations with cloud-resolving models.

    • Bin Zhao
    • , Yuan Wang
    • , Yu Gu
    • , Kuo-Nan Liou
    • , Jonathan H. Jiang
    • , Jiwen Fan
    • , Xiaohong Liu
    • , Lei Huang
    •  & Yuk L. Yung
  • Article |

    Magma ascent from the near-Moho depth of 24 km to surface eruption took 10 days with melt transport rates of 0.02 to 0.1 m s−1, according to geothermobarometry and diffusion chronometry on primitive olivine crystals from Borgarhraun, Iceland.

    • Euan J. F. Mutch
    • , John Maclennan
    • , Oliver Shorttle
    • , Marie Edmonds
    •  & John F. Rudge
  • Article |

    Tropical deforestation induces the loss and transport of old and biolabile soil organic carbon into rivers, suggest analyses of dissolved organic matter in deforested and pristine catchments in the Congo Basin. The mobilized soil carbon is likely to turn into a carbon source.

    • Travis W. Drake
    • , Kristof Van Oost
    • , Matti Barthel
    • , Marijn Bauters
    • , Alison M. Hoyt
    • , David C. Podgorski
    • , Johan Six
    • , Pascal Boeckx
    • , Susan E. Trumbore
    • , Landry Cizungu Ntaboba
    •  & Robert G. M. Spencer
  • Article |

    The Hadley circulation has been weakening over the past 40 years, as simulated by climate models, and not strengthening as found in observation-based reanalyses, suggests an analysis of both methods that points to artefacts in the reanalyses.

    • Rei Chemke
    •  & Lorenzo M. Polvani
  • Article |

    Only about 15% of water cycle diagrams include human interaction with water, although human freshwater appropriation amounts to about half of global river discharge, according to an analysis of 464 water cycle diagrams and a synthesis of the global water cycle.

    • Benjamin W. Abbott
    • , Kevin Bishop
    • , Jay P. Zarnetske
    • , Camille Minaudo
    • , F. S. Chapin III
    • , Stefan Krause
    • , David M. Hannah
    • , Lafe Conner
    • , David Ellison
    • , Sarah E. Godsey
    • , Stephen Plont
    • , Jean Marçais
    • , Tamara Kolbe
    • , Amanda Huebner
    • , Rebecca J. Frei
    • , Tyler Hampton
    • , Sen Gu
    • , Madeline Buhman
    • , Sayedeh Sara Sayedi
    • , Ovidiu Ursache
    • , Melissa Chapin
    • , Kathryn D. Henderson
    •  & Gilles Pinay
  • Article |

    Ahuna Mons dome on Ceres formed by extrusion of a mixture of brine and solids sourced from a muddy mantle plume, according to numerical modelling of slurry rheology and a gravity anomaly found by the Dawn mission.

    • Ottaviano Ruesch
    • , Antonio Genova
    • , Wladimir Neumann
    • , Lynnae C. Quick
    • , Julie C. Castillo-Rogez
    • , Carol A. Raymond
    • , Christopher T. Russell
    •  & Maria T. Zuber
  • Article |

    Mesosiderite meteorites may originate from a hit-and-run impact on the parent asteroid of eucrite meteorites (probably Vesta), as mesosiderite zircon U–Pb ages are found to coincide with those for eucrites.

    • Makiko K. Haba
    • , Jörn-Frederik Wotzlaw
    • , Yi-Jen Lai
    • , Akira Yamaguchi
    •  & Maria Schönbächler
  • Article |

    Banded iron formations could not have formed by postdepositional oxidation, according to four million hydrogeological box model iterations that failed to reproduce secondary oxidation on reasonable timescales.

    • Leslie J. Robbins
    • , Sean P. Funk
    • , Shannon L. Flynn
    • , Tyler J. Warchola
    • , Zhiquan Li
    • , Stefan V. Lalonde
    • , Benjamin J. Rostron
    • , Albertus J. B. Smith
    • , Nicolas J. Beukes
    • , Michiel O. de Kock
    • , Larry M. Heaman
    • , Daniel S. Alessi
    •  & Kurt O. Konhauser
  • Article |

    The boundary between West and East Antarctica is a tectonic feature that bisects the Ross Ice Shelf. This boundary constrains ocean circulation under the ice, which affects ice stability, according to airborne survey data and ocean simulations.

    • K. J. Tinto
    • , L. Padman
    • , C. S. Siddoway
    • , S. R. Springer
    • , H. A. Fricker
    • , I. Das
    • , F. Caratori Tontini
    • , D. F. Porter
    • , N. P. Frearson
    • , S. L. Howard
    • , M. R. Siegfried
    • , C. Mosbeux
    • , M. K. Becker
    • , C. Bertinato
    • , A. Boghosian
    • , N. Brady
    • , B. L. Burton
    • , W. Chu
    • , S. I. Cordero
    • , T. Dhakal
    • , L. Dong
    • , C. D. Gustafson
    • , S. Keeshin
    • , C. Locke
    • , A. Lockett
    • , G. O’Brien
    • , J. J. Spergel
    • , S. E. Starke
    • , M. Tankersley
    • , M. G. Wearing
    •  & R. E. Bell
  • Article |

    Melts from diverse mantle components are delivered to the lower oceanic crust and preserved at centimetre scale, according to the wide range in the Nd and Sr isotope composition of gabbroic minerals from a segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    • Sarah Lambart
    • , Janne M. Koornneef
    • , Marc-Alban Millet
    • , Gareth R. Davies
    • , Matthew Cook
    •  & C. Johan Lissenberg
  • Article |

    Pluto’s subsurface ocean and thickness variation in its ice shell may be maintained by a layer of methane clathrates forming an insulating cap to the ocean, according to calculations of thermal evolution and viscous relaxation.

    • Shunichi Kamata
    • , Francis Nimmo
    • , Yasuhito Sekine
    • , Kiyoshi Kuramoto
    • , Naoki Noguchi
    • , Jun Kimura
    •  & Atsushi Tani
  • Article |

    Biologically available nitrogen in the form of ammonium was abundant in the Late Archaean ocean, according to nitrogen isotope and proxy analyses on 2.7 billion year old shales from Zimbabwe.

    • J. Yang
    • , C. K. Junium
    • , N. V. Grassineau
    • , E. G. Nisbet
    • , G. Izon
    • , C. Mettam
    • , A. Martin
    •  & A. L. Zerkle
  • Article |

    Shallow moonquakes detected at four Apollo landing sites between 1969 and 1977 occurred during maximum stress and in close proximity to young faults, suggesting that the Moon is tectonically active, according to reanalyses of the seismic data and tidal force modelling.

    • Thomas R. Watters
    • , Renee C. Weber
    • , Geoffrey C. Collins
    • , Ian J. Howley
    • , Nicholas C. Schmerr
    •  & Catherine L. Johnson
  • Article |

    An internal redox see-saw between the Panthalassa Basin and the proto-North Atlantic can explain cyclic changes in the sediment record throughout the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum 97 to 91 million years ago, according to simulations with a numerical ocean model.

    • Klaus Wallmann
    • , Sascha Flögel
    • , Florian Scholz
    • , Andrew W. Dale
    • , Tronje P. Kemena
    • , Sebastian Steinig
    •  & Wolfgang Kuhnt
  • Article |

    Compared to the past few centuries, Central Pacific El Niño events have become more frequent, whereas the number of Eastern Pacific events has declined in the most recent decades, according to reconstructions from a network of seasonally resolved coral records.

    • Mandy B. Freund
    • , Benjamin J. Henley
    • , David J. Karoly
    • , Helen V. McGregor
    • , Nerilie J. Abram
    •  & Dietmar Dommenget
  • Article |

    Fluctuations in early Cambrian biodiversity of animals coincided with extreme oscillations in atmospheric and shallow-ocean oxygenation, according to analyses of carbon and sulfur isotopes in Cambrian-age marine carbonates.

    • Tianchen He
    • , Maoyan Zhu
    • , Benjamin J. W. Mills
    • , Peter M. Wynn
    • , Andrey Yu. Zhuravlev
    • , Rosalie Tostevin
    • , Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann
    • , Aihua Yang
    • , Simon W. Poulton
    •  & Graham A. Shields
  • Article |

    Moon formation by a giant impact ejecting material from a magma ocean on Earth reconciles geochemical and dynamical constraints on its formation, according to numerical simulations.

    • Natsuki Hosono
    • , Shun-ichiro Karato
    • , Junichiro Makino
    •  & Takayuki R. Saitoh
  • Article |

    Organic aerosols that sediment from Titan’s atmosphere may float, form a film and damp waves on Titan’s seas, according to computations. This damping effect could explain the observed smoothness of Titan’s seas.

    • Daniel Cordier
    •  & Nathalie Carrasco
  • Article |

    Nitrogen deposition in China has been almost constant over the past decade, as decreasing wet deposition has balanced increasing dry deposition, according to analyses of extensive datasets on wet and dry nitrogen depositions in China.

    • Guirui Yu
    • , Yanlong Jia
    • , Nianpeng He
    • , Jianxing Zhu
    • , Zhi Chen
    • , Qiufeng Wang
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Xuejun Liu
    • , Honglin He
    • , Xuebing Guo
    • , Zhang Wen
    • , Pan Li
    • , Guoan Ding
    •  & Keith Goulding
  • Article |

    Microplastics can reach and affect regions far from where they are released because of atmospheric transport, suggest analyses of atmospheric deposition in a remote, pristine mountain catchment in France.

    • Steve Allen
    • , Deonie Allen
    • , Vernon R. Phoenix
    • , Gaël Le Roux
    • , Pilar Durántez Jiménez
    • , Anaëlle Simonneau
    • , Stéphane Binet
    •  & Didier Galop
  • Article |

    Deep Atlantic carbon storage increased and the meriodional overturning circulation weakened at the mid-Pleistocene transition to 100,000-year glacial–interglacial cycles, according to analyses of foraminifera trace elements and Nd isotopes.

    • J. R. Farmer
    • , B. Hönisch
    • , L. L. Haynes
    • , D. Kroon
    • , S. Jung
    • , H. L. Ford
    • , M. E. Raymo
    • , M. Jaume-Seguí
    • , D. B. Bell
    • , S. L. Goldstein
    • , L. D. Pena
    • , M. Yehudai
    •  & J. Kim
  • Article |

    Long-period Milankovitch eccentricity oscillations controlled compositional variations in the 2.48-billion-year-old Kuruman Banded Iron Formation, according to cyclostratigraphic analysis and high-precision dating.

    • Margriet L. Lantink
    • , Joshua H. F. L. Davies
    • , Paul R. D. Mason
    • , Urs Schaltegger
    •  & Frederik J. Hilgen
  • Article |

    Pyroclastic density currents are able to travel large distances because they generate their own air lubrication, according to large-scale laboratory experiments.

    • Gert Lube
    • , Eric C. P. Breard
    • , Jim Jones
    • , Luke Fullard
    • , Josef Dufek
    • , Shane J. Cronin
    •  & Ting Wang
  • Article |

    A methane spike 15.5 ± 2.5 parts per billion by volume was detected in the Martian atmosphere above Gale Crater on 16 June 2013 by Mars Express, independently confirming the debated in situ observation by the Curiosity rover a day earlier.

    • Marco Giuranna
    • , Sébastien Viscardy
    • , Frank Daerden
    • , Lori Neary
    • , Giuseppe Etiope
    • , Dorothy Oehler
    • , Vittorio Formisano
    • , Alessandro Aronica
    • , Paulina Wolkenberg
    • , Shohei Aoki
    • , Alejandro Cardesín-Moinelo
    • , Julia Marín-Yaseli de la Parra
    • , Donald Merritt
    •  & Marilena Amoroso