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  • Sea level during the last interglacial stood at least 4 m higher than at present, with evidence of short-term fluctuations of up to 10 m. A new continuous sea level record from the Red Sea and coral ages suggest that during these fluctuations, sea level changes were on the order of 1.6 m per century.

    • E. J. Rohling
    • K. Grant
    • M. Kucera
    Letter
  • Crumpling of the crust above a sinking dense mantle layer, which is underneath central Europe, triggered the formation of the eastern Alps and the Carpathian mountains, and its surroundings were stretched to form the Pannonian Basin.

    • Ninad Bondre
    Research Highlights
  • In each of the three main ocean basins, dense water from around Antarctica circulates in the bottom layers, and in the Atlantic ocean, an upper circulation cell that is driven from the north caps the bottom loop.

    • Heike Langenberg
    Research Highlights
  • The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change has convinced the public that climate change is real. To tackle it, the panel needs complementary climate services that provide continuous climate information for all regions and the globe.

    • Martin Visbeck
    Commentary
  • Carbon isotopes of fossil plants and model simulations suggest that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were variable during the period 200 to 60 million years ago. The large decreases in the partial pressure of CO2 coincide with glaciations, providing evidence against climate–CO2 decoupling during the Mesozoic.

    • Benjamin J. Fletcher
    • Stuart J. Brentnall
    • David J. Beerling
    Letter
  • Thanks to global carbon-cycle feedbacks, the Earth may have escaped global glaciation during the Neoproterozoic era, enabling photosynthesis to continue.

    • Katherine Anderson
    Research Highlights
  • The tropical belt has been widening over past decades — as estimated from a number of independent lines of evidence — shifting the dry subtropical climate zones polewards around the world.

    • Dian J. Seidel
    • Qiang Fu
    • Thomas J. Reichler
    Progress Article
  • Over the past 15 million years, Arctic Ocean circulation has exhibited two distinct modes: during the interglacial periods of the past two million years, including the present, Arctic intermediate water was mainly derived from North Atlantic inflow. By contrast, between 15 and 2 million years ago, and during glacial periods thereafter, brine formation on the Eurasian shelves contributed substantially to Arctic intermediate water.

    • Brian A. Haley
    • Martin Frank
    • Anton Eisenhauer
    Article
  • Multibeam mapping of the northwestern Indian Ocean seafloor provides clear evidence of dextral strike-slip motion along the Owen fracture zone and helps constrain the nature of deformation as well as the rate of slip along this little-studied plate boundary.

    • Marc Fournier
    • Nicolas Chamot-Rooke
    • Claude Lepvrier
    Letter
  • Forests in northern Asia had fewer trees at the peak of the last Ice Age compared with their modern counterparts.

    • Ninad Bondre
    Research Highlights
  • The shift of autumnal colouring of leaves to later in the year is due to high ambient atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and is independent of temperature.

    • Alex Thompson
    Research Highlights
  • Although the climate on Venus is very different from that on Earth, many features of the two planets' atmospheric circulations and their lightning regimes are more similar than we thought.

    • Heike Langenberg
    Research Highlights
  • The peak flow of glacier lake outburst floods — and consequently their potential for devastation — depends on air temperature.

    • Alex Thompson
    Research Highlights
  • Both the continued bulldozing by India and the collapse of the thicker parts of the Eurasian plate towards the circum-Asiatic oceanic plates contribute to the ongoing deformation of the Asian continental interior.

    • Ninad Bondre
    Research Highlights
  • The iron-rich dust entering the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean comes from the Anti-Atlas Mountain belt in Morocco.

    • Alicia Newton
    Research Highlights
  • Diamond-bearing rocks from the Dharwar Craton in India were probably sourced from deeper parts of the Earth's mantle than previously thought.

    • Ninad Bondre
    Research Highlights
  • Shrub encroachment into the Arctic tundra could cause early snowmelts and warmer springtime temperatures.

    • Alex Thompson
    Research Highlights