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Here, the authors synthesize a variety of ultra-thin III–V single crystals, ranging from ultra-narrow to wide bandgap semiconductors, through enhancing the interfacial interaction between the III–V crystals and the growth substrates.
Zinc affinity plays a key role in the zinc plating and stripping processes but its internal mechanism is still unclear. Here, the authors report a protective layer with controllable zinc affinity by adjusting the crystal orientation to suppress the dendrite growth on the zinc anode interface.
Quintulene, a quintuple non-graphitic cycloarene, is challenging to synthesize. Here, the authors synthesize and characterize the cone-shaped extended quintulene and its bilayer dimer, and disclose its dimerization as an entropy-driven, second-order reaction with a substantial activation energy.
Although knots in complex optical fields have been realized experimentally, the realization of acoustic vortex knots is still problematic. Here, the authors have demonstrated the creation of acoustic vortex knots by embedding the knot function into a propagating acoustic field using a metasurface hologram.
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process of magnetic energy conversion to kinetic energy. Here, the authors show direct evidence of secondary reconnection in the filamentary currents within the flux ropes indicating a significant contribution to energy conversion in the kinetic scale during turbulent reconnection.
For advanced microcomb applications, the exact detection of the high repetition rate becomes difficult due to the limited bandwidth of the photodiodes. Here, the authors present a Vernier dual-comb method to sample the main soliton comb and divide the repetition rate by a generating low frequency beat notes.
Designing high-performance and energy efficient neural network hardware remains a challenge. Here, the authors develop a van der Waals hybrid synaptic device that features linear and symmetric conductance-update characteristics and demonstrate the feasibility for hardware neural network performing acoustic pattern recognition.
Ocean cold seeps are poorly understood relative to related systems like hydrothermal vents. Here the authors use high pressure bioreactors and microbial communities from a cold seep mud volcano and find a previously missing step of methane conversion to acetate that likely fuels heterotrophic communities.
Diagnosing a heart attack requires excessive testing and prolonged observation, which frequently requires hospital admission. Here the authors report a machine learning-based system based exclusively on ECG data that can help clinicians identify 37% more heart attacks during initial screening.
Heavy metals and metalloids pose major threats to health and environmental ecosystems, thus systems for low-cost remediation are needed. Here the authors report the scalable design of a hydrogen-bonded organic–inorganic framework for selective removal of trace heavy metal ions from water.
Triacylglycerols (TG) are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bilayer and packaged into monolayer lipid droplets (LDs), but how proteins partition between ER and LDs is poorly understood. Here authors use synthetic model systems and find that proteins containing hydrophobic membrane association domains strongly prefer monolayers and that returning to the bilayer is unfavorable.
Eukaryotic replisomes are multiprotein complexes. Here the authors reveal two distinct stressed replisomes, associated with DONSON and FANCM, displaying a bias in replication timing and chromatin domain.
Thalamocortical dysrhythmia is a key pathology of chronic pain. Here, the authors propose an analytical pipeline to study dynamic fMRI brain networks and demonstrate that chronic low back pain pathophysiology and clinical pain intensity are associated with distinct thalamocortical network dynamics.
Wing touching induces a defensive response in D. melanogaster. Here, the authors show that female flies change the defensive response during courtship and after mating. This switch is mediated by functional reconfiguration of a neural circuit in the ventral nerve cord.
Small molecule stabilizers of protein–protein interactions hold great therapeutic potential. Based on virtual screening and molecular docking, the authors here develop a strategy to evolve weak, promiscuous inhibitors of 14-3-3 interactions into selective stabilizers of the 14-3-3/ChREBP complex.
Terpene cyclases catalyze the formation of diverse hydrocarbon scaffolds found in terpenoids. Here, the authors report the cryptic function of class I terpene cyclases as aromatic prenyltransferases and the universality of this cryptic feature is confirmed using enzymes from different sources.
Dealloying usually relies on chemical dissolution of an alloy component. By contrast, the authors demonstrate an atomic-scale phase separation process that differs completely from the chemical dealloying mechanism and thus represents a significant departure from the well-known Hume-Rothery rules.
Dedifferentiation state has been associated with therapy resistance in melanoma. Here, the authors uncover a pre-existing NGFR-expressing, targetable subpopulation that is resistant to immunotherapy and other treatments in melanoma cells and preclinical models.
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 (Vegetative Insecticidal Protein 3) toxins are widely used in biotech crops to control Lepidopteran pests. Here authors present the cryo-EM structures of the protoxin and the protease-activated state of Vip3Aa which shed light on the molecular basis for Vip3 activation.
Atomistic diffusion in solids determines aging and the transformation of materials. Here, the authors resolve the origin of the ubiquitous enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, showing how it emerges from shifts in the vibrational modes of the materials during activation.
Although our lives are continuous, we perceive and remember experiences as discrete events. Here, the authors show that neural responses at event boundaries in the hippocampus and Posterior Medial cortical network decline as we age, and predict memory for narrative events.
Here, the authors use in situ transmission electron microscopy to measure the interface properties of electrical contacts with MoS2, ReS2, and graphene, and find that direct quantum tunnelling across van-der-Waals-bonded interfaces is more favourable than Fowler–Nordheim tunnelling across chemically bonded interfaces.
The authors provide a comprehensive characterization of the human antibody response to a licensed hepatitis E virus (HEV) vaccine, Hecolin, in four individuals over the course of six months post vaccination. They demonstrate diverse patterns of antibody response underlying the vaccine protection.
Light-driven heating of plasmonic metal nanoparticles can activate temperature-sensitive reactions at the nanoscale. Here, the authors exploit such nanoscale plasmonic reactors to drive, control, and spectroscopically track the growth of single metal@semiconductor core@shell nanoparticles.
Inhibition in spinal nociceptive pathways is weaker and more labile in lamina I —where thermal input is primarily processed— than in lamina II that encodes predominantly high threshold mechanical input. This explains why noxious thermal input makes spinal circuits prone to catastrophic sensitization.
We can flexibly coordinate our movements with external stimuli, but no circuit-level model exists to explain this ability. Inspired by fundamental concepts in control theory, the authors construct a modular neural circuit that captures human behavior in a wide range of temporal coordination tasks.
Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and inflammation contribute to plaque destabilization in atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of thrombotic events. Here, the authors show that epsin promotes EC inflammation via a mechanism involving IP3R1 degradation, and that deletion of epsin in the endothelium prevents EC dysfunctoin and atherosclerosis in mice.
Y6, as a non-fullerene acceptor for organic solar cells, has attracted intensive attention because of the low voltage loss and high charge generation efficiency. Here, Zhang et al. find that the delocalization of exciton and electron wavefunction due to strong π-π packing of Y6 is the key for the high performance.
Frontal top-down cortical neurons implement top-down attentional control of sensory regions. The authors reveal adolescence as a developmental stage when frontal top-down neurons projecting from the anterior cingulate to visual cortex are functionally integrated into local excitatory circuitry.
The authors here present a deep learning model that simultaneously detects earthquake signals and measures seismic-phase arrival times. The model performs particularly well for cases with high background noise and the challenging task of picking the S wave arrival.
It is unclear if rates of autism and other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diagnoses are elevated in transgender and gender-diverse individuals compared to cisgender individuals. Here, the authors use data from five different large-scale datasets to identify elevated rates of autism diagnoses, diagnoses of other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, and elevated traits related to autism in transgender and gender-diverse individuals, compared to cisgender individuals.
p53 mutants can promote tumorigenesis by affecting fundamental cellular pathways and functions. In this study, the authors demonstrate a novel mutant-p53/HIF1α/miR-30d axis that impacts Golgi structure, trafficking, and secretion of proteins essential for tumor growth and metastasis.
Monodisperse and well-defined self-assembled materials can be obtained by fuel-driven temporally controlled supramolecular polymerization via the buffered release of monomers. Here the authors show that a redox-responsive transient dormant state of monomer generated by redox reaction can lead to supramolecular polymers with low dispersity.
To investigate the molecular foundation of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Beckmann et al. constructed multiscale causal networks on a large human AD multi-omics dataset, detecting AD-associated networks and their top predicted regulator, VGF, with extensive validation in the 5xFAD mouse model.
Some bacterial lineages appear to be pre-disposed to evolving antibiotic resistance. Here, the authors show that differential expression of an efflux pump causes widespread variation in evolvability across Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and chemical inhibition of the pump prevents resistance evolution.
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rapidly progressive dementia. No clinical blood tests are available for diagnosis. The authors identified three miRNAs in whole-blood that are downregulated in sCJD patients, and discriminate sCJD from Alzheimer’s disease patients and healthy controls.
While R-loops can alter cell homeostasis, it is unclear what determines their toxicity. Here, the authors, by using Top1 knockdown as a tool to enhance the formation of R-loops at certain genomic sites, reveal and characterize a proportion of R-loops that are more toxic to the cell by causing DNA damage.
Genotoxic agents have been shown to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, the authors show that upon DNA damage, the deubiquitinase OTULIN activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by inhibiting linear ubiquitination, K48-linked polyubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of β-catenin.
While mass spectrometry-based proteomics largely relies on digesting proteins into peptides, there is no equivalent strategy for polysaccharide analysis. Here, the authors develop a chemical approach to break down poly- into oligosaccharides and present a workflow to identify polysaccharides by oligosaccharide fingerprinting.
The allocation of remaining fossil fuel production has stimulated a discussion around issues of equitable allocation but the implications of different options are unclear. Here the authors show that shifting production to low-medium human development regions has limited economic benefits under strong climate policy.
The authors here tackle the problem that too much seismic data is acquired worldwide to be evaluated in a timely fashion. Seydoux and colleagues develop a machine learning framework that can detect and cluster seismic signals in continuous seismic records.
Despite recent progress to advance cardiac cell-based therapy for patients, heart failure mortality rivals most cancers. Here, the authors describe an approach to control and pattern 3 distinct human cardiac cell populations to promote superior repair and regeneration after myocardial infarction.
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway and catalyses the decarboxylation of mevalonate-5-diphosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate. Here, the authors provide insights into the conformational changes that occur during substrate binding of MDD and the subsequent enzymatic reaction steps by determining the substrate and intermediate bound crystal structures of Enterococcus faecalis MDD.
Understanding trends in ocean circulation and dynamics is hampered by a lack of long-term records. Here the author uses probabilistic reanalysis of available data to show that transport by the Florida Current has declined over the past 110 years, indicating a slowdown of Atlantic Ocean circulation.
The molecular determinants of differential responses of different cancer cells to methionine restriction are poorly understood. Here the authors show that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α regulates sulfur amino acid metabolism and dictates the sensitivity of liver cancer to this dietary manipulation.
The evolutionary relationships within Archaea remain unresolved. Here, the authors used genomic approaches to study the Undinarchaeota, a previously uncharacterized clade of DPANN, shed light on their position in an updated archaeal phylogeny and illuminate the history of archaeal genome evolution.